СОР И СОЧ The English language Grade 10 (natural-mathematical direction)

30 август 2019, Пятница
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A collection of tasks for Formative Assessment
on the subject «The English language»
Grade 10
(natural-mathematical direction)
Nur-Sultan, 2019
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Dear teacher!
The group of teachers designed this collection of tasks as a teaching aid to assist teachers
within the framework of updating the content of education. Tasks with assessment criteria and
descriptors are samples for assisting teachers in providing constructive feedback to learners in terms
of achievement of learning objectives; in selecting and designing similar tasks, in planning lessons
and carrying out Formative Assessment.
The advisory nature of the tasks collection allows teachers to adapt, add and make changes
in tasks according to learners’ capacities and requirements.
Additional materials (manuals, presentations, plans, etc.), the discussion possibility on
forums and video instructions can be found on the official website of «Nazarbayev Intellectual
Schools» Autonomous Educational Organisation smk.edu.kz.
We wish you creative work and success!
This collection of tasks is designed for secondary school teachers, school administrations,
educational departments’ seniors, regional and school coordinators in criteria-based assessment and
others.
Freely available Internet resources such as pictures, cartoons, photos, texts, video and audio
materials, etc. have been used in designing this tasks collection. The collection of tasks was
designed for the noncommercial purposes.
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CONTENTS
TERM 1................................................................................................................................................ 4
Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena ........................................................................................... 4
Unit 2: Natural Disasters .................................................................................................................... 19
TERM 2.............................................................................................................................................. 38
Unit 3: Virtual Reality........................................................................................................................ 38
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic world ............................................................................................. 49
TERM 3.............................................................................................................................................. 58
Unit 5: Reading for pleasure .............................................................................................................. 58
Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain ................................................................................................. 62
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies .................................................................................................... 76
TERM 4.............................................................................................................................................. 95
Unit 8: Space X .................................................................................................................................. 95
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TERM 1
Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena
Subunit Interesting facts about genetics. DNA
Learning objectives 10.2.1Understand the main points in unsupported extended talk
on a wide range of general and curricular topics,
including talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
10.2.2 Understand specific information in unsupported
extended talk on a wide range of general and curricular
topics, including talk on a limited range of unfamiliar
topics
10.6.11 Use a variety of reported statements and question
forms on a wide range of familiar general and curricular
topics
Assessment criteria  Recognise the main information in extended talks
 Identify specific details in extended talks
 Use question forms and reported speech on a wide range
of topics
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. Listen to the conversation and mark if the statements (a-h) are True or False.
Follow the link to listen: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1105/110519-blood_tests.mp3
a. A new blood test may answer a question that scares many of us. True False
b. The cost of the test will be around $7,000. True False
c. Telomeres in our body kill potentially deadly bacteria and cancer. True False
d. The new blood test will be of great interest to insurance companies. True False
e. The test could lead to developments that will fight heart disease. True False
f. A consultant said people should not be concerned about the test. True False
g. The consultant said we would change our lifestyle if they took the test. True False
h. The test inventor believes it’s not useful to know your biological age. True False
Task 2. Make questions about the content of the conversation you would like to ask the class
about. Ask your partner / group your questions.
To make it more interactive organize the “Inside-Outside Circle” activity. Inside and outside
circles of learners face each other. Within each pair of facing learners, they quiz each other with
questions they have written. Outside circle moves to create new pairs.
Transcript
Would you like to know when you’ll die? It’s a scary question for many, but one which
could be answered using a new blood test. Spanish scientists have invented such a test that they
say will estimate how much longer you will live. The $700 test measures the length of telomeres
in our DNA. Telomeres control how often our cells divide to make new ones and are thus
responsible for aging. They limit the length of our lifespan. The company behind the project, Life
Length, says the test will give people an idea of the speed at which they are ageing and a
prediction of when the end might come. Critics have been quick to attack the test. They say it is
unethical, unreliable, and could lead to insurance firms demanding people take the test before
issuing policies.
Researchers say the test could lead to breakthroughs in age-related illnesses such as
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Alzheimer's and heart disease. Professor Jerry Shay, a consultant for Life Length, admitted
people are right to be wary of the new test. He said: "People might say, 'If I know I'm going to
die in 10 years, I'll spend all my money now', or 'If I'm going to live for 40 years, I'll be more
conservative in my lifestyle'. He added: "The worrying thing is that if this information ever got to
a point where it is believable, insurance companies would start requiring it in terms of insuring
people.” Maria Blasco, inventor of the test, believes it is important, saying: "It will be useful for
you to know your biological age. Maybe you would change your lifestyle habits if you find you
have short telomeres."
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 circles True and False statements appropriately;
 asks and responds to questions appropriately.
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Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena
Subunit Interesting facts about genetics. DNA
Learning objectives 10.4.1 Understand main points in extended texts on a wide
range of familiar and some general and curricular topics
10.4.3 Skim a range of lengthy texts with speed to identify
content meriting closer reading on a range of general
and curricular topics
10.6.13 Use a growing variety of past modal forms including
must have, can’t have, might have to express
speculation and deduction about the past on a wide
range of familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Recognise the main information in extended talks
 Skim the text to identify the main idea
 Apply various modal verbs to express speculation and
deduction
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. Read the passage below and answer the questions.
DNA Fossil Unveils Another Species of Humans!
“Scientists have found the oldest DNA evidence yet of humans’ biological history. But
instead of neatly clarifying human evolution, the finding is adding new mysteries.
In a paper in the journal Nature, scientists reported Wednesday that they had saved
ancient human DNA from a fossil dating back about 400,000 years, shattering the previous
record of 100,000 years.
The mismatch between the anatomical and genetic evidence surprised the scientists, who
are now rethinking human evolution over the past few hundred thousand years. It is possible,
for example, that there are many extinct human populations that scientists have yet to discover.
Right now, we’ve basically generated a big question mark,” said Matthias Meyer, a geneticist at
the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and a co-author
of the new study.
Hints at new hidden difficulties in the human story came from a 400,000-year-old bone
found in a cave in Spain called “the pit of bones”. The scientific team used new methods to
extract the ancient DNA from the fossil. Finding such ancient human DNA was a major
advance, said David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School who was not involved in the
research. “That’s an amazing, game-changing thing,” he said. When Dr. Meyer and his
colleagues found ancient human DNA inside they thought that it would be a very early
Neanderthal,” Dr. Meyer said.
But the DNA did not match that of Neanderthals. Dr. Meyer then compared it to the DNA
of the Denisovans, the ancient human lineage that he and his colleagues had discovered in
Siberia in 2010. He was shocked to find that it was similar. Everybody had a hard time
believing it at first, Dr. Meyer said. So we generated more and more data to nail it down. The
extra research confirmed that the DNA belonged on the Denisovan branch of the human family
tree. The new finding is hard to settle with the picture of human evolution that has been
emerging based on fossils and ancient DNA…
1. The oldest DNA evidence found by scientists…
A. Added new questions about human evolution
B. Solved the problem of human evolution
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C. Added more workload
2. The recent ancient human DNA from a fossil dating back about...
A. 100,000 years
B. 400, 000 years
C. 500, 000 years
3. There was the mismatch between the ___________and _______ evidence
A. Historical and biological
B. Anatomical and genetic
C. Historical and genetic
4. Where was the oldest DNA evidence called “the pit of bones” found?
A. Spain
B. USA
C. Russia
5. Scientists were __________ to find that “the pit of bones” and DNA of the Denisovans
were similar.
A. Happy
B. Angry
C. Surprised
Task 2. Work in pairs and discuss the following questions. Use modal verbs in your speech.
How does this new information relate to humans today? What is the importance?
Reference
The text is retrieved from https://esl-voices.com/dna-fossil-unveils-another-species-of-humans/
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 choses correct answers for multiple-choice question appropriately;
 expresses speculation and deduction using modal verbs.
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Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena
Subunit Myth busters (Physics, Chemistry, Biology)
Learning objectives 10.1.6 Organize and present information clearly to others
10.2.3 Understand the detail of an argument in unsupported
extended talk on a wide range of general and curricular
topics, including talk on a limited range of unfamiliar
topics
10.3.4 Evaluate and comment on the views of others in a
growing variety of talk contexts on a growing range of
general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Organise and present information in a clear and
structured way
 Identify the detail of an argument
 Evaluate and comment on the views of others
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Remind the rules of debate. The roles are distributed.
Rules of debate
Team members
Each debate has 2 teams. One team is called the proposition. The other team is called the
opposition. Each debate team has learners known as the first speaker for the team, the second
speaker for the team, and the last learner is the team`s rebuttal speaker.
The Proposition Speakers:
 Provide the team`s definitions
 Provide clarifications
 Deliver substantive arguments in support of the motion
The Proposition Rebuttal Speaker:
 Defends definition (if challenged)
 Rebuts the Opposition`s substantive arguments
 Defends Proposition`s substantive arguments (if necessary)
 Provides quick summary of Proposition`s case
 Has option to run a constructive argument
The Opposition Speakers
 Provide the team`s definitions
 Provide clarifications
 Deliver substantive arguments against the motion
The Opposition Rebuttal speaker
 Re-changes definition (if challenged)
 Rebuts the Proposition’s substantive arguments
 Defends Opposition`s substantive arguments (if necessary)
 Provides quick summary of Opposition`s case
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Task 2.
Ask learners to consider the following statement and develop arguments for further ideas and
discussion.
Science is a threat to humanity
Consider the following statement and decide on the pros and cons in pairs.
PROS CONS
Task 3.
Debate procedures for teachers to know.
1. Learners hear the topic and take positions (pro and con)
2. Teams discuss their topics and come up with statements
3. Teams deliver their statements and offer main points
4. Learners discuss the opposition`s argument and come up with rebuttals
5. Rebuttals delivered
6. Closing statements made
Speakers make their presentations in the following order. The time that is listed is the maximum
amount for each speech.
 First speaker, proposition team 3 minutes
Cross-examination by the opposition team (only for clarification) 1 minute
 First speaker, opposition team 3 minutes
Cross-examination by the proposition team (only for clarification) 1 minute
 Second speaker, proposition team 3 minutes
Cross-examination by the opposition team (only for clarification) 1 minute
 Second speaker, opposition team 3 minutes
Cross-examination by the proposition team (only for clarification) 1 minute
 Learners discuss the opposition`s argument and come up with rebuttals 5 minutes
 Rebuttal speaker, opposition team 2 minutes
 Rebuttal speaker, proposition team 2 minutes
Discuss the topic ‘Science is a threat to humanity’ in your team and prepare your opening
arguments. The speakers have 2-3 minutes to present their principal ideas. The listening team
prepares notes to make rebuttal to the expressed opinions.
Your speech should:
 be clear and structured
 address the alternative viewpoint
While the debate is in progress, the teacher monitors and takes notes. At the end of the debate,
the teacher proves feedback based on the notes.
Answer keys:
Task 2:
Suggested pros:
 New technologies have dissolved traditional families and led to creation of harmful new
relationships.
 The manipulation of life is playing God.
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 Science has created new means for the state to control the lives of its citizens.
 Science enables much greater destruction.
 Science leads to the damaging of the environment.
Suggested cons:
 Lives could be more rewarding because science helps to take control of our environment.
 Science is set of tools to improve humanity.
 Science allows humans to collaborate more effectively.
 Science saves and improves lives.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 talks about the rules of debate and his/her role in it;
 expresses for and against arguments on the topic;
 participates in discussion;
 illustrates argument with examples;
 evaluates alternative perspectives on viewpoint.
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Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena
Subunit Myth busters (Physics, Chemistry, Biology)
Learning objective 10.4.7 Recognise patterns of development in lengthy texts [interparagraph level] on a range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Identify logical flow of events in a reading passage in
unfamiliar general and curricular topics
 Make connections between the features/details of the
paragraphs to analyze the text
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1.
To activate learners’ background knowledge, get them name 6 patterns of organization.
Name the following 6 patterns of the text organization.
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
Task 2.
Read the passages below and match them with the corresponding graphic organizers. There are
two extra graphic organizers.
1. The Age of the Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs existed about 250 million years ago to 65 million years ago. This era is broken up into
three periods known as the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The Triassic Period lasted for
35 million years from 250-205 million years ago. Planet Earth was a very different place back
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then. All the continents were united to form one huge land mass known as Pangaea. The Jurassic
Period was the second phase. The continents began shifting apart. The time scale for this famous
period is from 205 to 138 million years ago. The Cretaceous Period was the last period of the
dinosaurs. It spanned a time from 138 million to about 65 million years ago. In this period the
continents fully separated. However, Australia and Antarctica were still united.
2. Creating a Dinosaur Sculpture Materials: pipe cleaners, clay, non-toxic paint
Wouldn’t you like a scary dinosaur model on your desk to protect your pencils and textbooks?
You can easily make one by following these simple directions. First, bend your to make the frame
of your dinosaur. I suggest you create a tyrannosaurus frame by using one long pipe cleaner as his
neck, spine, and tail, and then bend another into a u-shape to make his feet. Wrap the feet around
the spine piece. Next, roll out clay to wrap around the pipe cleaners. Let the clay dry overnight.
The next day you may want to paint your dinosaur using non-toxic paint. His eyes should be white,
but feel free to color your dinosaur as you wish. Nobody really knows how dinosaurs were
colored, so don’t let anyone tell you that your dinosaur can’t be pink. Lastly, put him on your desk
and watch as he or she scares away bullies and pencil thieves.
3. What Happened to the Dinosaurs?
There are many theories about why the dinosaurs vanished from the planet. One theory that many
people believe is that a gigantic meteorite smashed into the Earth. Scientists believe that the
meteorite was very big and that the impact may have produced a large dust cloud that covered the
Earth for many years. The dust cloud may have caused plants to not receive sunlight and the large
plant eaters, or herbivores, may have died off, followed by the large meat eaters, or carnivores.
This theory may or may not be true, but it is one explanation as to why these giant reptiles no
longer inhabit the Earth.
Task 3.
Choose a passage and draw an appropriate graphic organizer putting the information from the
passage into it. The following graphic organizers are examples. Feel free to make changes if
necessary.
Answer keys:
Task1: 1. Cause and effect, 2. Chronological, 3. Compare and contrast, 4. Order of importance, 5.
Problem and solution, 6. Process
Task 2: 1. Chronological Order, 2. Sequence / Process, 3. Cause and Effect.
Task 3: Suggested answers
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1
2
3
Reference
The text is retrieved from https://www.ereadingworksheets.com/text-structureworksheets/identifying-text-structure-2-answers.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 names patterns of the text organization correctly;
 reads the texts and identifies logical flow of events in a reading
passage;
 matches passages with the corresponding patterns of text
organization;
 chooses 1 text and draws a graphic organizer showing the logical
flow of events correctly.
make the frame of
your dinosaur
roll out clay to
wrap around the
pipe cleaners
Let the clay dry
overnight
paint your
dinosaur using
non-toxic paint
put him on your
desk
dinosaurs
vanished
from the
planet
a gigantic
meteorite
smashed into
the Earth
plants didn`t
receive
sunlight
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Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena
Subunit Writing an article
Learning objectives 10.1.10 Use talk or writing as a means of reflecting on and
exploring a range of perspectives on the world
10.5.4 Use style and register to achieve appropriate degree of
formality in a growing variety of written genres on a range
of general and curricular topics
10.5.7 Use independently appropriate layout at text level on a
range of general and curricular topics
10.6.9 Use appropriately a wide variety of active and passive
simple present and past forms and past perfect simple
forms in narrative and reported speech on a wide range of
familiar general and curricular topic
Assessment criteria  Express opinion on a wide range of perspectives on the
world
 Use appropriate style and register
 Use visual tools to structure writing
 Develop a coherent paragraph on general and curricular
topics based on the layout
 Apply various tenses on a wide range of familiar general
and curricular topic
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1.
To remind the structure of a newspaper article, get learners match the elements of an article with
their definitions or functions.
Match the elements of an article with their definitions or functions.
Element Definition/Function
Headline  Where the story begins
Byline  Catches your attention
 Sums up the story
Placeline  The opening section
 Gives most important information
 Should answer most of the 5W’s
Lead  What someone actually said
 Adds accuracy
 Adds “at the scene” feeling
Body  Supplies detail
 Most important details come first
Quotation  Writer’s name
 Writer’s Specialty, e.g.sports, food, crime, current events
Task 2.
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Think of recent scientific discoveries and write an article to a teenage magazine. You should
 write a byline
 create a placeline
 create a catchy lead paragraph
 write in the 3rd person
 write the body (1-3 paragraphs)
 be ensure to include a quotation
 use different tenses
A byline – a line at the top of a magazine article giving the writer’s name
A placeline - where article is unfolded
A lead paragraph – contains most 5W and 1H (What? Who? Why? Where? When? How?).
Makes reader want to read the rest of the article. Basic but important information.
Task 3.
Read your partners news report. Answer the following questions as you read through the article.
How did your peer do? How many ‘yes’ answers did you circle?
6-8 YES 3-5 YES 0-2 YES
Pass Maybe Needs improvement
Answer keys
1. Is the article related to headline? YES NO
2. Are all 5 W’s present? YES NO
3. Is there a quotation used? YES NO
4. Is third person narration used? YES NO
5. Are 3 paragraphs used? YES NO
6. Is there a placeline? YES NO
7. Is there a byline? YES NO
8. Is there a lead paragraph? YES NO
9. Are different tenses used? YES NO
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Task 1:
Element Definition/Function
Headline  Catches your attention
 Sums up the story
Byline  Writer’s name
 Writer’s Specialty, e.g.sports, food, crime, current events
Placeline  Where the story begins
Lead  The opening section
 Gives most important information
 Should answer most of the 5W’s
Body  Supplies detail
 Most important details come first
Quotation  What someone actually said
 Adds accuracy
 Adds “at the scene” feeling
Sample news report
Important Discovery Made By Local Student
BRAMPTON - For the past year, a group of students have raised money for the Canadian
Breast Cancer Society. To support loved ones with breast cancer. This money was raised through
the help of other family and friends who came out to fundraisers and walkathons the students held.
“It is amazing to see young children in our community taking charge and creating events for
such a good cause,” said a walker from the walkathon. With bright smiles on their faces, mothers,
sisters, fathers, brothers, grandparents came out to the walkathon and pledge money. The students
were amazed to see how many community members came out the event.
If you would like to be part of the events or even just to pledge money, you may contact
students at bsswalks@bss.com
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 shows understanding of the main newspaper article elements by
matching elements with definitions or functions;
 writes an article in distinct paragraphs, each one covers a clear issue;
 follows the article structure;
 uses appropriately formal style and language, quotation;
 includes a byline, a placeline;
 writes in 3
rd
person;
 uses different tenses;
 reads partner’s news report and answers the questions;
 gives sensitive feedback to a partner’s work.
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Unit 1: Science and scientific phenomena
Subunit Writing an article
Learning objective 10.5.6 Write coherently at text level using a variety of
connectors on a range of familiar general and curricular
topics
10.5.9 Punctuate written work at text level on a wide range of
general and curricular topics with a good degree of
accuracy
10.6.7 Use perfect continuous forms and a variety of simple
perfect active and passive forms including time
adverbials … so far, lately, all my life, on a wide range of
familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Write coherent paragraphs using a variety of connectors
 Apply punctuation marks correctly
 Apply a variety of perfect tense forms including time
adverbials
Level of thinking skills Application
Task 1. To activate learners` background knowledge ask them the following questions.
 What is a quote/quotation?
 What is the difference between direct and indirect quotations?
 Where can see quotations?
Task 2. This task can be done before writing an article to practice writing a direct quotation.
Work with your partner and take turns to answer the following questions. In your answer use:
 a variety of perfect tense forms including time adverbials like so far, lately, all my life.
Question for Student A: What will the next big discovery in science be?
Question for Student B: What will science uncover in the next few decades?
Complete the following worksheet to quote your partner.
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Answer keys:
Task 1: Suggested answers:
1. A "quotation" is the exact word or words that a person speaks.
2. A direct quotation, the words you hear from someone speaking, and an indirect quotation,
which are the words that someone else uses to describe another speaker.
3. In newspaper articles, scientific paper, magazines etc.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 shares ideas on the use of quotations;
 writes a coherent paragraph quoting a partner;
 punctuates a quotation correctly;
 uses perfect tense and time adverbials correctly.
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Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Causes and consequences of natural disasters (atmosphere,
lithosphere, hydrosphere)
Learning objectives 10.1.9 Use imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences
and feelings
10.2.1 Understand the main points in unsupported extended talk
on a wide range of general and curricular topics, including
talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
10.2.2 Understand specific information in unsupported extended
talk on a wide range of general and curricular topics,
including talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Express thoughts, ideas, experiences and feelings with
imagination
 Recognize the main points in extended talk on different
topics
 Identify specific details in extended talk on a wide range of
topics
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Task 1. To activate learners` schemata, ask them to brainstorm possible effects of volcanic
eruptions on atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere before listening to the audio.
Work in pairs and discuss how volcanic eruptions can affect atmosphere, lithosphere and
hydrosphere.
Task 2. Learners listen to the audio twice. Transcript can be found after the answer keys. Go to
this link to listen: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/collections/mount_st_helens#p00gzw7z
Listen to the news report. Circle True or False for the statement below.
1. Mount St. Helens is situated in the USA. True False
2. People had been asked to leave the area because the volcanic
eruption was in progress.
True False
3. Mount St. Helens burst alive three days ago. True False
Task 3. Listen to the report again and complete the following sentences by inserting ONE word
only:
1. Authorities in USA say Mount St Helens is ready to __________________.
2. Plumes of smoke and ___________________ are being forced into the sky.
3. Seismic data indicated new magma and _________are coming to the surface.
4. The alert level has been raised to Category __________________________.
5. When the volcano erupted previously ________________people were killed.
6. The ______ of people and the scientists are waiting to see what happens next.
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Answer keys:
Task 1: Possible answers: ash particles will throw up into the atmosphere, the volcanic ash can be
a threat to aircraft, volcanoes produce CO2, water temperature will rise, it can cause water
pollution through raining, volcanic eruptions can change, destroy or create the new type of rock
and landform.
Task 2: 1. True; 2. False; 3. True.
Task 3: 1. erupt; 2. ash; 3. lava; 4. three/3; 5. 57; 6. crowds.
Transcript:
Scientists monitoring Mount St. Helens in the United States say that the volcano could erupt
at any moment. Hundreds of people have been said to leave the area after the officials raised the
alert level. Our Washington correspondent Ian Pannel reports
Is Mount St. Helens ready to erupt? In the last three days the volcano suddenly burst alive.
Plumes of steam and ash forced into the Washington state`s sky as the earth beneath continues to
shake. And at this seismic data that has scientists concerned. They think new magma and gas are
pushing to the surface and the alert level has been raised to category 3.
‘Level 3 indicates that we feel an eruption is imminent or is in progress. Obviously, it`s not
yet in progress so at imminent stage.’
24 years ago Mount St. Helens erupted with deadly ferocity. 57 people were killed. Much of
the region coated in ash. Today the warning signs are great but if an eruption happens, scientists
don`t think it will be a repeat of 1980. Hundreds of people flocked to the mount spelled by the
volcano emotion. But now the alert level`s being raised, they`ve been ordered to leave.
`I wanna emphasize that if I don`t see your back and your feet moving, you`re pointing in a
wrong direction’
Still many have chosen to ignore the warnings. Mount St. Helens has more visitors than ever
before. The crowds and the scientists watch and wait to see what happens next. Ian Pannel. BBC
news. Washington.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 discusses possible effects of volcanic eruptions on atmosphere;
 discusses possible effects of volcanic eruptions on lithosphere;
 discusses possible effects of volcanic eruptions on hydrosphere;
 identifies true and false statements appropriately;
 completes the gaps with suitable words;
 writes one word for each gap;
 spells the words correctly.
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Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Causes and consequences of natural disasters (atmosphere,
lithosphere, hydrosphere)
Learning objectives 10.4.5 Deduce meaning from context in extended texts on a wide
range of familiar general and curricular topics, and some
unfamiliar topics
10.5.3 Write with grammatical accuracy on a range of familiar
general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Recognise and take advantage of context clues to figure
out the meaning of the text
 Write grammatically correct sentences on familiar and
curricular topics
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Talk to your partner. Look at the list of natural disasters in the box and discuss the causes
and results of each of them. What can we do to protect ourselves from events like this?
Task 2. Read a newspaper article about a natural disaster. Choose from the sentences A-I the one
which fits each gap 1-7. There is ONE EXTRA sentence which you do not need to use.
A. This in turn led to an explosion of violence which reduced the food supplies still further.
B. But the colonists refused to change their social system.
C. History is not man-made, it is the planet itself which shapes our destiny.
D. But none of this would have produced a revolution if the country had not been faced with
famine.
E. Instead of improving their agriculture, their rulers fought endless wars to win more land.
F. This led to a massive lowering of temperature for several years.
Revolution that erupted from two volcanoes
Like the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, these eruptions blew large
amounts of sulphurous ash into the atmosphere, partly blocking the sun`s rays and temporarily
cooling the climate.
France in 1789 was already bankrupt because of a long war in America. The government
was threatened by a plot to organise riots financed by an ambitious aristocrat who wanted to
become king. 1___The result of the eruptions was several years of cold, wet weather in Europe.
Two violent storms in 3788 and 1789 destroyed the harvest in many parts of the 20 country and
the resulting shortage of corn was made worse by the Finance Minister`s refusal to import corn
from abroad on the grounds that the state could not afford it.
2___ When the people of France saw wagons full of 25 com go through their village streets
they said, ‘There is plenty of com, but not for us: it`s for the king, the aristocrats, the rich who
have plenty to eat while we go hungry.’ And then the maddened people would throw the sacks of
corn into the nearest river.
Another volcanic eruption - in Indonesia in April 1815 - may have helped cause Napoleon’s
defeat at the battle of Waterloo. 3_____1816 was called the ‘year without a summer’. Torrential
volcanic eruptions droughts famine
earthquakes floods hurricanes
22
rains marked the beginning of the Waterloo campaign, creating 35 deep mud which for many
hours prevented Napoleon from moving his big guns.
The French revolution is one of many examples where a change of climate was the final
blow to an already threatened society.
40 The Little Ice Age, which started about AD 1400, threatened the Scandinavian colony in
Greenland. 4_____ They might have survived if, instead of sticking to their aristocratic society,
they had moved from farming to hunting, like the Eskimos who replaced them.
At about the same period the great civilization of the Mayas in Yucatan faced ever
worsening droughts. 5____This had the opposite effect to that intended, since forcing people into
the army meant they had to leave their land.
Task 3. Find words or phrases in the article which mean:
 For a short time (paragraph 1) ____________________
 Financially ruined time (paragraph 2) ______________
 For the reason that (paragraph 2) __________________
 Made angry (paragraph 3) __________________
 Very heavy rain (paragraph 3) __________________
Task 4. Before doing this task check task 3 as a whole class so that your learners know which
words to use.
Make sentences with the words from the previous task. Pay attention to grammatical accuracy.
Answer keys:
Task 1: Sample answer: Floods generally occur as a result of bad weather. For instance, storms,
heavy or persistent rain or melting snow or ice. These events lead to a rise in the water level. Flood
may cause destruction. For example, destruction dwellings, of the economic infrastructure and of
vital installations. In order to prevent floods, we should build and develop infrastructure that will
prevent, avoid or limit floods and protect the population.
Task 2: 1D, 2A, 3F, 4B, 5E. C is extra
Task 3:
For a short time =temporarily
Financially ruined time = bankrupt
For the reason that =on the grounds that
Made angry =maddened
Very heavy rain =torrential rains
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
 comes up with possible causes and effects of certain natural disasters;
 answers the question;
 reads the newspaper article and fills in the gaps with proper sentence;
 finds corresponding words in the article;
 makes sentences with words in task 3;
 writes grammatically correct sentences.
23
Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Focus on Kazakhstan: reporting on the causes and consequences
of natural disasters
Learning objectives 10.1.1 Use speaking and listening skills to solve problems
creatively and cooperatively in groups
10.3.7 Use appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and syntax to
talk about a range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Find creative solutions to problems working
collaboratively in groups
 Use a range of appropriate vocabulary and grammatically
correct sentences to exchange views on different topics
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. To create interest in the topic and activate learners’ schematic knowledge, ask learners to
match natural disasters with corresponding pictures.
Match the pictures below with corresponding words in the box.
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
Task 2. Work in pairs and decide which natural disasters happen in Kazakhstan. You should:
 use topic-related vocabulary. Example: violent storm, fatal outcomes, destroy, damage etc.
 support your answers with examples. Example: A calamitous flood destroyed many houses
in Atbasar in 2016.
Hurricane, tornado,
avalanche, volcanic eruption,
flood, drought, forest fire,
tsunami.
24
Task 3. Work in pairs and discuss the following natural disasters which often occur in our country.
Talk about causes, effects and possible solutions.
You should:
 use topic-related vocabulary. Example: violent storm, fatal outcomes, destroy, damage etc.
 use appropriate linkers to talk about causes, effects and possible solutions. Example: I guess
it`s because…, So…, Because…, I suppose the best way to deal with this problem is…
 take turns when speaking and listen to others.
Answer keys:
Task 1: 1. Flood; 2. Tornado; 3. Forest fire; 4. Volcanic eruption; 5. Drought, 6. Tsunami;
7. Avalanche; 8. Hurricane.
Task 2 possible answers: flood (Example: Karaganda and Akmola regions), forest fire (West and
South Kazakhstan regions), avalanche (Example: Almaty, East Kazakhstan regions), and drought
(Zhambyl region).
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 matches pictures to suitable words;
 identifies the natural disaster;
 provides examples to justify the answer;
 uses vocabulary related to Natural disasters;
 uses grammatically correct sentences;
 expresses ideas clearly and provides arguments/examples to justify
them;
 makes theories about the topic collaboratively;
 initiates and responds appropriately.
25
Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Focus on Kazakhstan: reporting on the causes and consequences
of natural disasters
Learning objective 10.4.7 Recognise patterns of development in lengthy texts [interparagraph level] on a range of general and curricular topics
10.5.8 Communicate and respond to news and feelings in
correspondence through a variety of functions on a range
of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Identify logical flow of events in a reading passage
 Responds to news and feelings on a range of general and
curricular topics
 Develop responses to texts by speculating and
formulating hypotheses
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. To activate and check learners` prior knowledge of the Aral Sea crisis, ask them to
complete a K-W-L chart.
Work individually and complete a K-W-L chart on the Aral Sea problem writing what you know
and want to know about the topic.
Task 2.
Ask learners to read the article below and identify the 3 Ts: title, topic and thesis.
Read the article below and answer the following questions.
1. Choose the best title for this article.
a) Fishermen and challenges they face
b) Waiting for the sea
c) The story of an old man
2. What is the topic of this article?
3. What is the thesis statement of this article?
4. Complete the graphic organizer according to the information presented in the text.
26
It took just 40 years for the Aral Sea to dry up.
Fishing ports suddenly found themselves in a desert.
But in one small part of the sea, water is returning.
Khojabay is a fisherman who lives in a desert.
Almost everyone in his village used to fish for a
living but in the 1970s the fish died, and the sea
began to dry up. The Aral Sea, in Central Asia, used
to be the fourth largest lake in the world, after the
Caspian Sea, and Lakes Superior and Victoria. Now
barely 10% of it is left. This must be one of the most
dramatic alterations of the Earth’s surface for centuries.
For more than half Khojabay’s life, the sea provided one sixth of the fish eaten in the USSR.
He became the skipper of a fishing boat.
“Catching 100kg was quite normal, and the fish
were big and healthy – he remembers one that weighed
7kg. But he also remembers when things began to go
wrong. His last catch in 1976, was a net full of dead
fish. As the sea receded, the climate began to change.
“We used to grow melons and other crops. We
ate them, sold them in the market and made money,”
he says. “We grew clover for our cattle and barley for
ourselves.”
But the rain stopped. Grass dried up, and the
small freshwater lakes that once existed near the sea’s
edge disappeared. Herds of antelope that used to roam
the area dwindled to nothing. The summers became blisteringly hot, the winters bitingly cold. And
just getting around became tough. In the old days everyone went from one fishing village to the
next by boat. Now they get about by car – but there are barely any roads. Instead, sturdy 4x4s
bump and shake their way over tracks across the former sea bed.
Khojabay still comes out of his house every day, and by instinct looks out where the sea
ought to be. He knows he will never see it here again - but he has heard there is a chance that his
15-year-old grandson will.
27
Task 3.
Refer back to the K-W-L chart and ask learners to complete the last column.
Complete the last column in the K-W-L chart and write what you have learnt about the Aral Sea
problem. Then compare your W to L column and say if your questions have been answered while
reading.
Answer keys:
Task 2: 1. b; Suggested answers: 2. The problem of the Aral Sea, The Aral Sea crisis, The drought
of the Aral Sea etc. 3. The drought of the Aral Sea had tragic impact not only the environment in
that place but on people`s life as well. 4. Cause- the Aral Sea has dried up. Effects: dead fish,
climate change, people`s life became tough, the number of antelopes decreased, plants dried up.
Reference
The article is adapted from Waiting for the sea http://www.bbc.com/news/resources/idt-a0c4856e-1019-4937-96fd-8714d70a48f7.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 writes a fact about the Aral sea and its problem;
 writes 1-2 questions he/she has about the Aral sea and its problem;
 skims the article;
 identifies the most suitable title for the article;
 identifies the topic and thesis statement of the article;
 answers the questions;
 identifies the cause and effect patterns in the text;
 reflects on what he/she has learnt;
 completes the chart;
 compares two columns of the chart.
28
Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Focus on Kazakhstan: reporting on the causes and consequences
of natural disasters
Learning objectives 10.1.1 Use speaking and listening skills to solve problems
creatively and cooperatively in groups
10.3.7 Use appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and syntax to
talk about a range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Find creative solutions to problems working
collaboratively in groups
 Apply a range of appropriate vocabulary and
grammatically correct sentences to exchange views on
different topics
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1.
Think in pairs and share what a good news report should include. Make a list of criteria as a class.
Task 2.
Inform learners that they are about to create a news report about a natural disaster. To provide a
holistic picture of the activity, show an example video of a news report on natural disasters. The
video can be found here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZvRUmY5jDY
You are going to organize and present the evening news. First, watch an example video and
comment on it using the criteria list you have created.
Task 3.
Work in groups of 3 and reflect on the vocabulary you are going to use when presenting your piece
of news. Prepare your news presentations following the criteria below.
1. Targeting the audience
-voice. Broadcaster speaks with an appropriate volume and for the audience to here.
Employs clear pronunciation. Uses non-monotonous, vocal expression to clarify the
meaning of the text.
-eye contact. Eye contact with audience is engaging.
-face/body gestures. Expressively uses non-verbal communication to clarify the meaning
of the text.
2. Basic story structure
-story has a clear and engaging opening;
-story`s sequence of events is easy for the listener to follow.
-story`s ending has a sense of closure.
3. Vocabulary
-tellers` choice of language is descriptive and articulate;
-topic-related vocabulary is used.
4. Creativity
-tellers creatively present the sequence of events;
-all group members are involved to act like on-the scene reporters and witnesses.
29
Assess each other according to the following form
Answer keys:
Task 1 suggested answers: structure, presentation manner, catchy opening, creativity etc.
Tasks 2 and 3 learners` answers: Sample news report can be found here
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZvRUmY5jDY
PEER ASSESSMENT CARD
HIGH (H) – MEDIUM (M) – LOW (L)
Targeting the
audience
Basic story
structure
Vocabulary
and
Grammar
Creativity
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 describes a good news report;
 makes a list of criteria;
 evaluates and comments on a news report;
 follows a clear structure and sequence which is easy to follow;
 uses language which is clear and easy to understand;
 uses language which is descriptive and articulate;
 shows understanding of the speaker`s statements;
 provides constructive feedback to peers.
30
Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Focus on Kazakhstan: reporting on the causes and consequences
of natural disasters
Learning objective 10.4.7 Recognise patterns of development in lengthy texts [interparagraph level] on a range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Identify logical flow of events in a reading passage in
unfamiliar general and curricular topics
 Make connections between the features/details of the
paragraphs to analyze the text
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. To pre-teach possible blocking lexis, get learners match the words below to their
definitions.
Match the words from the reading passage to their definitions.
1. smooth A. all into a jumbled or flattened mass through the force of external
pressure
2. collapse B. destroy
3. rigid C. to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association
4. velocity D. deficient in or devoid of flexibility
5. demolish E. even and uninterrupted in flow or flight
6. conduit F. quickness of motion
7. contaminate G. a natural or artificial channel through which something (such as a
fluid) is conveyed
Task 2. Read the following passages and determine the text structure. One text structure is extra.
Compare and Contrast Spatial Chronological
Problem and Solution Cause and Effect Order of Importance /
Sequence
31
1. The surface of the Earth is divided into pieces called “tectonic plates.” These plates move.
When the plates rub against each other, they do not move smoothly. When the plates do not move
smoothly, earthquakes result. Some parts of the world get more earthquakes than other parts. The
parts of the earth that get most earthquakes are near the edges of these plates.
How is the text structured?
_____________________________________________________________
2. Some countries, such as Japan, or parts of a country, like Almaty in Kazakhstan, have a lot of
earthquakes. In these places it is a good practice to build houses and other buildings so they will
not collapse when there is an earthquake. This is called seismic design or "earthquake-proofing".
How is the text structured?
_____________________________________________________________
3. The ability of a building to withstand the stress of an earthquake depends upon its type of
construction, shape, mass distribution, and rigidity. Different combinations are used. To reduce
stress, first, the building's ground floor must be flexible. One method is to support the ground
floor with extremely rigid, hollow columns, while the rest of the building is supported by flexible
columns located inside the hollow columns. A different method is to use rollers or rubber pads to
separate the base columns from the ground, allowing the columns to shake parallel during an
earthquake. Next, the outdoor walls should be made with stronger and more reinforced materials
such as steel or reinforced concrete. Then, to help prevent collapsing, the roof should be made out
of light-weight materials.
How is the text structured?
_____________________________________________________________
4. Hurricane Katrina began as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on
August 23, 2005. The depression later strengthened into a tropical storm on the morning of August
24 where the storm was also named Katrina. Katrina continued to move into Florida, and became a
Category 1 hurricane only two hours before it made landfall around Hallandale Beach on the
morning of August 25. The storm weakened over land, but became a hurricane again while
entering the Gulf of Mexico.
How is the text structured?
_____________________________________________________________
5. Have you ever wondered what the inside of a volcano looks like? Deep underground is a
magma chamber. The magma chamber is under the bedrock of the earth’s crust. The conduit or
pipe runs from the magma chamber to the top of the volcano. The conduit connects the magma
chamber to the surface. Most volcanoes also have a crater at the top. Volcanoes are quite a sight,
and you can enjoy this site all over the universe. Volcanoes are found on planets other than Earth,
like the Olympus Mons on Mars.
How is the text structured?
_____________________________________________________________
32
Task 3.
Use a cause and effect paragraph and put information from the text into the appropriate graphic
organizer.
Answer keys
Task 1: 1.E 2.A 3.D 4.F 5.B 6.G 7.C
Task 2: 1 Cause and Effect, 2 Problem and Solution, 3 Sequence / Process Writing, 4
Chronological order 5 Spatial / Descriptive Writing.
Task 3: Passage1 is a cause and effect paragraph
Reference
The text is adapted from https://www.ereadingworksheets.com/text-structure-worksheets/textstructure-3.pdf
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 matches the words to definitions correctly;
 identifies logical flow of events in a reading passage and matches
passages with the corresponding patterns of organization;
 identifies cause and effect paragraphs correctly;
 completes the graphic organizer with information from the text.
33
Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Prediction and prevention of natural disasters
Learning objectives 10.5.5 Develop with support coherent arguments supported when
necessary by examples and reasons for a wide range of
written genres in familiar general and curricular topics
10.6.3 Use a variety of compound adjectives, adjectives as
participles, comparative structures indicating degree, and
intensifying adjectives on a wide range of familiar general
and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Write coherent arguments with support
 Include examples and reasons to support arguments
 Use compound adjectives, comparative and superlative
degree of adjectives on familiar topics
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skill
Task 1. Think-Pair-Share. To activate learners` schemata, ask them to brainstorm problems
related to global warming. First, learners formulate individual response, and then turn to a
partner to share their answers. Call on several random pairs to share their answers with the whole
class.
You have 1 minute to think of global warming and brainstorm its effects. Come up with as many
effects as you can. Then turn to your partner and share your findings.
Task 2.
Planning. As a prewriting stage, ask learners to complete the graphic organizer below to make
sure they have a clear vision of the problem itself.
Work in pairs and complete the graphic organizer below. Write problems related to global
warming and think of effective solutions. You should mention at least 2 problems and realistic
solutions.
Problems Solutions
Task 3.
Drafting.
Write a problem solution essay addressing the topic below.
Global warming is one of the biggest threats humans face in the 21st Century and sea
levels are continuing to rise at alarming rates. What problems are associated with this
and what are some possible solutions.
In your essay you should:
 Decide how to organize your writing. Example: Identify the problem in the first paragraph,
then lead up to your thesis statement and present the solution.
 Support your thesis with examples and details. Example: Use your lists of supporting
information to back up your ideas about the best solution to the problem.
 Use topic related adjectives to describe the effects of global warming. Example: harming
34
effects, urgent basis, renewable sources of energy etc.
 Write a strong conclusion. Example: Restate your ideas about the problem and its solution
Task 4.
Revising.
After completing your draft, read it again carefully to find ways to make your writing better. Here
are some questions to ask yourself. Answer the questions by ticking the corresponding box.
Essay checklist Yes No
Do the introduction and thesis statement
identify the problem?
Do the body paragraphs explain the
problem thoroughly?
Is your proposal supported by convincing
reasons, facts, and examples?
Did you use topic specific vocabulary?
Task 5.
Peer-assessment
Give feedback to your partner. Evaluate your partner`s problem-solution essay using the following
rating scale:
4 3 2 1
Organization
Supports the thesis
with a series of
paragraphs exploring
a problem and its
various solutions,
ending with a
discussion of the one
proposed by the
writer
Uses a reasonably
clear organization,
but occasionally
wanders from the
topic
Chooses an
organization not
suited to the topic
(for example,
presents the
solution without
having explained
the problem)
Shows lack of
organizational
strategy
Presentation
Explores the
problem and
solutions thoroughly
with facts, details,
and reasons; links all
information to the
goal of solving the
problem
Explores the
problem and
solutions
adequately with
several facts,
details, or
examples; links
most information to
the goal of solving
the problem
Does not explore
the problem and
solutions
adequately; does
not link supporting
information to the
goal of solving the
problem
Does not provide
any facts, details, or
examples to
explore the
problem and
solutions
Use of
language
Uses a wide range of
topic related
vocabulary to
describe the cause of
global warming
Uses a range of
topic related
vocabulary to
describe the cause
of global warming
Uses a limited
range of topic
related vocabulary
to describe the
cause of global
warming and
repeats
words/phrases
Uses topic related
vocabulary poorly
35
Answer keys:
Task 1: Learners` possible answers: extreme weather events, ice melts, sea levels rise, dirty air,
animals’ extinction etc.
Task 2: Learners` possible answers: recycling, replacing fossil fuels, consume less, infrastructure
upgrade etc.
Sample essay
Climate change is among the principal dangers facing people this century and ocean levels
are increasing dramatically. This essay will first suggest that the biggest problem caused by this
phenomenon is the flooding of homes and then submit building flood protection as the most viable
solution.
The foremost problem caused by sea levels creeping up is the flooding of peoples’
residences. Millions of people all over the world live in coastal areas and if the sea rises by even a
few feet, they will be inundated with water and lose their property. Shelter is one of the most basic
of human needs and widespread flooding would cause millions of people to become homeless, not
to mention losing all of their possessions. The devastation brought about by this was clear for all to
see during the 2011 Tsunami in Japan, in which millions of people were displaced.
A possible solution to this problem would be to build flood barriers. Flood defences, such as
dikes, dams and floodgates, could be built along coasts and waterways, thereby stopping the water
reaching populated areas. The Netherlands is one of the most populated areas in the world and also
one of the most vulnerable to flooding and they have successfully employed various flood defense
systems.
To conclude, stemming the rising tides caused by increasing global temperatures is one of
the foremost challenges we face and it will ultimately lead to many of the worlds’ cities being left
underwater, but a possible solution could be to utilise the flood prevention techniques already used
by countries like Holland. It is predicted that more and more countries will be forced to take such
measures to avoid a watery catastrophe.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
Task 5
 lists more than 5 problems;
 shares answers;
 provides logical and realistic solutions to certain problems;
 uses adjectives related to natural disasters;
 follows the structure of a problem solution essay including
introduction, main body and conclusion;
 provides examples and details to support his/her thesis;
 edits his/her essay via completing a checklist;
 evaluates partner’s essay;
 provides sensitive feedback to peers using the scale
 uses partner`s feedback to improve writing.
36
Unit 2: Natural Disasters
Subunit Prediction and prevention of natural disasters
Learning objectives 10.1.1 Use speaking and listening skills to solve problems
creatively and cooperatively in groups
10.2.7 Understand speaker viewpoints and extent of explicit
agreement between speakers on a range of general and
curricular topics
10.3.5 Interact with peers to make hypotheses about a wide range
of general and curricular topics
10.6.15 Use infinitive forms after an increased number of verbs
and adjectives use gerund forms after a variety of verbs
and prepositions use a variety of prepositional and phrasal
verb on a wide range of familiar general and curricular
topics
Assessment criteria  Find creative solutions to problems working
collaboratively in groups
 Recognise speaker`s opinion in extended talk on different
topics
 Interact with peers to make hypotheses
 Apply infinitive and gerund forms after a variety of verbs
and prepositions
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Learners listen to the audio twice. Go to the link below to watch. The transcript can be
found after the answer keys. https://www.listenaminute.com/n/natural_disasters.html
Listen to the audio and circle Yes (if they agree with the speaker`s viewpoint) or No (if they
contradict the speaker`s viewpoint).
1. In ancient times there were more natural disasters than now. Yes/ No
2. Many natural disasters happen because of global warming. Yes/ No
3. Japan can deal with natural disasters because they have money. Yes/ No
4. African people suffer from natural disasters more because of weather. Yes/ No
Task 2. Choose 1 natural disaster mentioned in the audio. Work in groups and make a presentation
on a natural disaster. Use the video as an example. Use the rubrics below for peer-assessment.
Rubrics for your presentation.
Excellent Good More practice
needed
Fluency The speech is
uninterrupted. All
the content is said
without reading the
paper.
The speech has
some interruptions.
Most of the content is
said without reading
the paper
Several interruptions.
Students need to
think what they want
to say. Some of the
content is said
without reading the
paper
37
Topic-related
vocabulary (at least
8 words) and
grammar
Use of more than
eight keywords.
Use of more than six
keywords.
Use of more than
three keywords
Body language The students show
self-confidences all
the time.
The students show
self-confidences most
of the time.
The students are shy
and speak
looking at the floor.
Accuracy of
language
All the content is
factually correct. No
remarkable mistakes
Most of the content is
factually accurate. A
few grammar mistakes
Some of the
information
is factually accurate
Answer keys:
Task 1: 1. No/N; 2. Yes/Y; 3. Yes/Y; 4. No/N
Task 2: Sample answer
Floods are among Earth's most common–and most destructive–natural hazards. A flood occurs
when water overflows. This can happen in a multitude of ways. Most common is when rivers or
streams overflow their banks. Excessive rain, a ruptured dam or levee, rapid ice melting in the
mountains can overwhelm a river and send it spreading over the adjacent land, called a floodplain.
Moving water has awesome destructive power. When a river overflows its banks or the sea drives
inland, structures poorly equipped to withstand the water's strength are no match. Bridges, houses,
trees, and cars can be picked up and carried off.
Transcript:
I don’t know about you, but I think there are more natural disasters now than before. Every time I
turn on the news there’s some kind of disaster. There are bushfires in Australia and California,
earthquakes in China, hurricanes in Mexico and droughts in Africa. I’m sure global warming is
creating more natural disasters. I’m lucky. Where I live, we don’t really have natural disasters. I’ve
never experienced anything like the things on TV. Japan has many natural disasters. They have
earthquakes, typhoons, flooding, volcanoes, all kinds of things. They are lucky they have the
money to deal with them. There are countries in Africa that aren’t rich. When a natural disaster
hits them, everyone suffers terribly.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 identifies Yes/ No statements appropriately;
 prepares a presentation about natural disaster;
 uses infinitives and gerunds correctly;
 has clear and well-paced verbal delivery and uses physical movement
as additional devices.
38
TERM 2
Unit 3: Virtual Reality
Subunit Developing and evaluating mobile applications
Learning objective 10.4.2 Understand specific information and detail in extended
texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics,
and some unfamiliar topics
10.5.4 Use style and register to achieve appropriate degree of
formality in a growing variety of written genres on a range
of general and curricular topics
10.6.1 Use a variety of abstract compound nouns and complex
noun phrases on a range of familiar general and curricular
topics, and some unfamiliar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Identify specific information and detail in extended texts
 Use appropriate style and register
 Use a range of abstract compound nouns and complex
noun phrases
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. Read the text and answer to the questions.
Cool Jobs: Doing real science in virtual worlds.
For many years, Wim Veling used VR to help patients overcome phobias, or fears. As a
psychiatrist, he treats patients with mental-health disorders. Veling works at the University of
Groningen in the Netherlands. A person with a fear of heights, for instance, might wear a VR
headset and practice standing on top of a virtual building. When that person feels comfortable with
a low-rise building, he or she can move to a higher one, Veling explains. This technique is called
exposure therapy. It involves exposing people to frightening situations without putting them in true
danger. Veling also treats patients with other mental-health disorders. These include depression
and anxiety. Such patients can have problems with nervousness, irritability, sleeping and
concentrating. “It can be very difficult to relax if you are feeling depressed or anxious,” he notes.
Some people with these disorders try therapy with animals to help them feel calm. One form,
known as dolphin therapy, has patients swim with the marine mammals. But there can be
drawbacks to this. Dolphins are big, strong animals. So swimming with them can be dangerous.
Some people, of course, cannot swim. They may even be afraid of immersing themselves in open
waters. Veling needed evidence that the video actually helped people. So he started a small
experiment to see if virtually swimming with dolphins helped his patients relax. To test this, he
had his patients watch the video through a VR headset. At the same time, Veling watches them for
signs of stress. He counts how fast his patients’ hearts beat. He also measures whether they’re
tensing their muscles and how much they sweat. A rapid heartbeat, muscle tension and sweating
are signs that someone is not very relaxed, he says. He cannot say with certainty that the VR
sessions are helpful. He’s still gathering data. But he does hope to have some answers soon. Veling
plans to make the dolphin immersion video available to the public in the next year so that anyone
with a VR headset can try it at home. He hopes it will be a new way for people to relax.
1. How does a virtual reality headset work?
2. What kind of virtual environment does David Peeters use in his research?
3. What aspect of speech is Peeters studying?
4. How could Peeters’ research someday help people with autism?
5. How can a doctor use virtual reality to treat someone’s fears?
39
6. Why did Wim Veling choose dolphins as the subject of his VR video?
7. What are three ways that Veling measures whether his patients are relaxed?
8. Why are biologists in California experimenting with moving baby salmon onto rice fields?
9. What is augmented reality?
10. Why does Jeanette Newmiller bring her augmented reality sandbox into classrooms?
Task 2. Write a paragraph about your thought on following topic. Use a range of abstract
compound nouns and complex noun phrases.
If you could use David Peeters’ virtual restaurant and electrode caps to do your own research,
what would you try to learn about how people interact?
The text is retrieved from: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/cool-jobs-doing-realscience-virtual-worlds
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  answers to the questions;
Task 2  writes a paragraph on topic;
 uses a range of abstract compound nouns and complex noun phrases.
40
Unit 3: Virtual Reality
Subunit Developing and evaluating mobile applications
Learning objective 10.1.5 Use feedback to set personal learning objectives
10.3.7 Use appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and syntax
to talk about a range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Reflect on feedback and set personal learning objectives
 Talk about given topics using appropriate syntax and topic
related vocabulary
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Prepare 3-5 minute speech on topic below:
- Think about a mobile application that you often use.
- Give your evaluation on its advantages and disadvantages.
- What can be done to improve it?
Present your speech. Your group mates are to peer assess your speaking according to the following
criteria.
#
Criteria Excellent Needs some
improvement
Needs much
improvement
Peers
recommendations
1 Speaker is confident
2 Speaker maintains eyecontact
3 Speech is interesting,
thought provoking
4 Grammar is accurate
5 Vocabulary is relevant
Task 2. Write 10 min reflection, taking into account peers` recommendations. Having identified
successes and areas for personal improvement, highlight 3-5 personal learning goals in relation to
your speaking skills.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  prepares speech on topic;
 presents speech;
 uses appropriate syntax;
 uses relevant vocabulary;
Task 2  reflects on peers’ feedback;
 sets 3-5 personal learning objectives.
41
Unit 3:Virtual Reality
Subunit Developing and evaluating mobile applications
Learning objective 10.1.1 Use speaking and listening skills to solve problems
creatively and cooperatively in groups
10.2.1 Understand the main points in unsupported extended talk
on a wide range of general and curricular topics, including
talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
10.6.15 Use infinitive forms after an increased number of verbs
and adjectives, use gerund forms after a variety of verbs
and prepositions, use a variety of prepositional and phrasal
verbs on a wide range of familiar general and curricular
topics
Assessment criteria  Convey solutions for the problem in discussion
 Identify the main points of extended talk
 Use infinitive and gerund forms, prepositional and phrasal
verbs
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Listen to five different people talking about communication in the digital world. Match the
ideas to the speakers. There are TWO EXTRA ideas that you do not need to use.
Link: http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening/advanced-c1-listening/livingonline
Speaker 1 a. Has recently learned about some of the negative effects of excessive online
communication.
Speaker 2 b. Is suffering from the fear of missing out.
Speaker 3 c. Has witnessed great changes in the way we communicate over recent years.
Speaker 4 d. Thinks that the amount of time teens spend online is alarming.
Speaker 5 e. Is quite happy for any photos of themselves to be posted online.
f. Thinks limiting teenagers’ access to technology is unfair.
g. Wishes people would talk more in person.
Task 2. Discuss in groups. Use infinitive and gerund forms or prepositional and phrasal verbs
where relevant :
1. Which of the speakers do you agree with most?
2. Do they express any views that you disagree with? Why?
3. Suggest solutions to the problems in relation to social media.
Answer keys:
Task 1. 1. c 2. g 3. a 4. f 5. h
Transcript:
Speaker 1: I think that even up until just a few years ago we could never have imagined how our
behaviour would change about using mobiles and tablets. I know that I would find it incredibly
difficult to live without my mobile. I’m constantly looking at my phone to see if I’ve got any new
messages or updates, and checking my apps to see what’s new. I wouldn’t say that I post my life
online, not like some people I know, but I do like to keep up with what people are up to – friends,
42
family and even other people I know but maybe haven’t seen for years, like old school friends, and
check out photos of what they look like now, ha ha ha (laughing)
Speaker 2: In a way, I think it’s quite funny that we’re always worrying about teenagers and
young people becoming obsessed with online communication, but if you ask me we need to worry
just as much about adults! At the office where I work, even when we have a break, nobody talks to
each other unless they absolutely have to, which is a sorry state of affairs to say the least.
Everyone’s too busy checking their social networks and sending messages to have time to
communicate face-to-face! People spend their lunchtime glued to their screens or barely glance up
from their phones. Even during meetings, people can’t resist subtly checking their phone, and what
really irritates me is when you are trying to talk to someone and they’re more interested in looking
at their phone than paying attention to what you’re saying, even though you're right in front of
them! Phubbing, I think it’s called!
Speaker 3: I was listening to this discussion on the radio the other day talking about online
communication and they were talking about FOMO or, what was it, Fear of Missing Out, which
apparently is a kind of modern-day psychological syndrome which we’re affected by because of
our obsession with online communication. Basically, they were saying that the reason why people
feel that they have to be connected 24/7 and communicate everything they’re doing and keep up
with everything that other people we know are doing is down to this fear of missing out. We’re
worried that everyone is having more fun than us or doing
something more exciting than us. They also said that because we’re spending more time
communicating in the online world, we’re losing the ability to enjoy the present.
Speaker 4: My generation is so different to my parents’. I mean, they’re always telling me that
they grew up in a world without mobiles and social networking and they managed fine. Hard to
imagine how they arranged to meet their friends without a phone … but they say they did! Uh ... I
had so many arguments with them while I was growing up, until they let me have my first
smartphone. But they didn’t let me have Snapchat or Instagram or anything like that! ‘It’s not the
end of the world,’ they’d say! They just didn’t understand that that’s the way people my age
communicate with each other. Nobody actually talks on the phone any more. They have no idea
how much I missed out on at school being the only one who didn’t have Snapchat. Also, at school
we had loads of talks and stuff on how to stay safe online and most of us knew that anything you
post online was going to be there forever.
Speaker 5: For me, one of the best things about online communication is that you can stay in
touch with everyone at the same time, all the time. You know exactly what’s going on, when and
where, so you never miss out on anything. I love the fact that you can update all your friends on
what’s going on in your life and they can respond immediately with a like or a comment, so you
feel like you’re together with people even though you might be completely alone sitting on a bus
or at home. I share loads of photos, but I only post up my best edited shots. I hate it when people I
know post photos of me not looking my best.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  matches speakers to the ideas;
Task 2  participates in group discussion;
 uses infinitive and gerund forms, prepositional and phrasal verbs.
43
Unit 3: Virtual reality
Subunit Developing and evaluating mobile applications
Learning objective 10.1.4 Evaluate and respond constructively to feedback from
others
10.4.1 Understand main points in extended texts on a wide range
of familiar and some unfamiliar general and curricular
topics
10.6.9 Use appropriately a wide variety of active and passive
simple present and past forms and past perfect simple
forms in narrative and reported speech on a wide range of
familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Evaluate and give constructive answers to feedback from
others
 Identify main points in extended texts
 Use active and passive simple present and past forms and
past perfect simple forms
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Ask learner share and predict ideas to the reading title “A classroom of the Mind”.
Before reading activity, discuss:
1. What kinds of technology imitate reality in some way?
2. Why might someone want to imitate a classroom?
3. Name some things that often distract you from your schoolwork. Are there others that help
you concentrate?
Task 2. Read the text and answer to the questions.
A CLASSROOM OF THE MIND
You're sitting at your desk. A teacher is writing on the chalkboard. A bus rumbles past the
window. Kids are yelling in the playground outside. A paper airplane whizzes overhead. The
school principal steps into the room, looks around, and walks out. A book falls off the desk next to
you. Suddenly, the teacher hands you a pop quiz. Unlike the classroom, the technology is real. It's
an innovative application of virtual reality, a type of technology that uses computer programs to
simulate real-world (or even fantasy) situations. Wearing virtual-reality gear, you can find yourself
sitting in a classroom, touring a famous museum, wandering across a weird landscape, zooming
into space, or playing with a cartoon character. You don't have to leave your room.
Movie directors and video game producers have been using computers for years to create
ever more realistic special effects. Some companies are now building three-dimensional fantasy
worlds in which players, linked by computer networks, appear to meet and go on quests together.
Virtual-reality gear that delivers images and sounds directly to your eyes and ears makes these
fake worlds seem lifelike. Some psychologists are also getting into the act. They see virtual reality
technology as a useful tool for learning more about why people act as they do. It could help
psychologists better identify and come up with solutions for behavior problems, for example.
"We've spent the last 100 years looking for certain laws in how people interact with the real
world," says clinical psychologist Albert "Skip" Rizzo. "Now, we've got a powerful tool that lets
us create worlds, control things, and see how people perform. This is a psychologist's dream."
Rizzo works in the school of engineering at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles,
where he developed the Virtual Classroom and a related program called the Virtual Office.
44
1. What is virtual reality? Who typically uses it?
2. Why have psychologists started to see virtual reality as a useful tool?
3. What is ADHD? What are some of its symptoms?
4. To test kids for ADHD, how might the virtual classroom be better than classic A-X tests?
5. How might the virtual classroom be used to treat kids with ADHD?
6. What adults might benefit medically from virtual reality technology?
7. How can virtual reality help kids undergoing painful medical procedures?
Task 3. Discuss the following questions in group. While providing responses use active and
passive simple present and past forms and past perfect simple forms where relevant.
1. Do you think the virtual classroom would be more efficient than other tests to evaluate
students' problems?
2. Do you think that the virtual classroom would increase or reduce the number of kids who
take medication for ADHD? Why?
Task 4. After reading the article, what questions about virtual reality remain unanswered? Make
up three or four questions that you would like to ask Skip Rizzo about his research.
Task 5. Peer assessment: provide feedback to the designed questions, using the criteria table
findings below.
# Criteria Yes
Specify your decision
No
Specify your decision
1 The questions are specific
2 The questions are relevant
3 The questions are thought
provoking
4 The questions are creative
5 The questions are related to real
life based evidence
Task 6. Evaluate and respond constructively to peers’ feedback.
The text is retrieved from: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/classroom-mind
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  predicts and shares ideas;
Task 2  provides answers to the questions;
Task 3  participates in group discussion;
 uses active and passive simple present and past forms and past
perfect simple forms;
Task 4  makes up 3-4 questions;
Task 5  peer assesses the questions;
Task 6  evaluates and responds constructively to peers’ feedback.
45
Unit 3: Virtual Reality
Subunit Developing and evaluating mobile applications
Learning objective 10.6.4. Use a wide variety of determiners and pre-determiner
structures on a wide variety of familiar general and
curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Use a wide range of determiners and pre-determiner
structures
Level of thinking skills Application
Task 1. Put determiners in the order.
 article (a/an, the)
 possessive (e.g. my, her, our, Anna’s
 head noun
 number (e.g. one, three, 26)
 demonstrative (this, that, these, those)
 quantifier (e.g. all, both, some)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Task 2. Using the fixed order of determines create five sentences related to the topic “Virtual
Reality”. Use the words and phrases from the box.
environment reality feeling people this some immerse experience excitement
experiment participants scientists equipment effective enjoy discover raise
awareness threat opportunity issue advantage disadvantage debate argue
support youngsters elderly businessmen investment spread popularity disagree
Create the sentences according to the criteria.
 Accurate order of determiners
 Less frequent vocabulary is used
 The sentences are related to the topic “Virtual Reality”
Answer keys
Task 2.
1.
quantifier
(e.g. all, both,
some)
2.
article (a/an,
the)
3.
demonstrative
(this, that,
these, those)
4.
possessive
(e.g. my, her,
our, Sam’s)
5.
number
(e.g. one,
three, 26)
6.
head noun
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  arranges determiners in order;
Task 2  creates sentences using a wide range of determiners;
46
Unit 3: Virtual Reality
Subunit Developing and Evaluating Mobile Applications
Learning objective 10.1.10 Use talk or writing as a means of reflecting on and
exploring a range of perspectives on the world
10.4.2 Understand specific information and detail in extended
texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics,
and some unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Respond to different perspectives on a range of global
issues
 Identify specific information in extended talk on diverse
topics
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Share your ideas on the following questions in pairs.
1. What is mobile application?
2. What are examples of mobile applications?
3. What are the benefits of mobile apps?
4. What are negative effects of mobile apps?
Task 2. Work in pairs. Match the words with their definitions.
Word Definition
1 distraction a. to perform more than one task at a time
2 unrelated b. something that gets your attention and prevents you from
concentrating on something else
3 relevant c. to attract and keep someone’s interest or attention
4 engage d. directly connected with and important to what is being
discussed or considered
5 multitasking e. something that works well and produces good results by using
the available time, money, supplies etc in the most effective
way
6 efficient f. not connected to a subject that you are thinking about or
discussing
Task 3. Read and highlight key ideas.
The Downside of Mobile Devices
Distraction by mobile devices is indeed something to worry about. Jeffrey Kuznekoff studies
communications at Miami University Middletown in Ohio. For one recent project, he let college
students take notes during a video lecture. Afterward the students took a test on the material.
During the video, one group of students could text or tweet about anything. Another group could
text and tweet only if the messages related to the lecture. A control group couldn’t text or tweet at
all.
“Texting on things that are unrelated to class can hurt student learning,” Kuznekoff found.
Overall, the control and class-related-message groups did 70 percent better on the test than did
students that could text and tweet about anything. That control and relevant-message groups also
scored 50 percent higher on note-taking.
“You’re putting yourself at a disadvantage when you are actively engaged with your mobile
47
device in class and not engaged in what’s going on,” warns Kuznekoff. His team shared its
findings in the July 2015 issue of Communication Education.
Those findings mesh with what college students themselves report. Another new study found
that the more time students said that they typically text, use social media or read online during
class, the lower their grades are.
“A lot of students tend to think that they are good at multitasking,” or doing more than one
thing at a time, says Saraswathi Bellur. She’s a communications researcher at the University of
Connecticut (UConn) in Storrs. In fact, she and her colleagues found, multitasking in class “is
likely to harm their academic performance.”
“We also have data that show that people who multitask during class or while doing
homework have to spend more time studying,” notes UConn coauthor Kristine Nowak. In other
words, she argues, students who use mobile devices for something other than research or notetaking during class “are not efficient, and it is costing them time.” Concludes Nowak, “People
believe they are better at multitasking than they are and this is leading them to bad study habits.”
Her group shared its findings in the December 2015 issue of Computers in Human Behavior.
Task 4. Read the following sentences related to the text “The downside of mobile devices”. Write
True, False, or Not Given for each sentence, justify your response.
№ Statements True/False/
Not Given
Justification
1 The research provides evidence that there are no
concerns related to mobile apps.
2 Three involved groups were exposed to equal
conditions.
3 One of the female researchers found out,
multitasking in class “is likely to harm peer
relationships.”
4 Students’ academic multitasking could result in
the inescapable lack of time.
Task5. Reflect on a range of different perspectives in relation to disadvantages of mobile apps on
academic performance. Share your ideas with the classmates.
Answer Keys:
Task 2. 1-b 2-f 3-d 4-c 5-a 6-e
Task 3.
№ Statements True/False/
Not Given
Justification retrieved from the context
1 The research provides
evidence that there are no
concerns related to mobile
devices.
False Distraction by mobile devices is indeed
something to worry about.
48
2 Three involved groups
were exposed to equal
conditions.
False One group of students could text or tweet
about anything.
Another group could text and tweet only if
the messages related to the lecture.
A control group couldn’t text or tweet at all.
(Note: groups were exposed to different
conditions)
3 One of the female
researchers found out,
multitasking in class “is
likely to harm peer
relationships.”
Not Given In fact, she and her colleagues found,
multitasking in class “is likely to harm their
academic performance.”
Note: Nothing is related to peer relationships).
4 Students’ academic
multitasking could result in
the inescapable lack of
time.
True In other words, she argues, students who use
mobile devices for something other than
research or note-taking during class “are not
efficient, and it is costing them time.”
The text is retrieved from “The downside of mobile devices”
https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/when-smartphones-go-school
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  elaborates on prior knowledge and personal experience;
 answers the questions;
Task 2  identifies vocabulary context by matching words with their
definitions;
Task 3
Task 4
 predicts the content of the text by discussion in pairs;
 highlights the key ideas in the text;
 writes True, False, Not Given for each sentences;
 justifies his/her answers with information from the text;
Task 5  reflects on a range of world issues.
49
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic world
Subunit Discussing the difference between organic and non-organic food
Learning objective 10.2.2 Understand specific information in unsupported extended
talk on a wide range of general and curricular topics,
including talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
10.3.3 Explain and justify own and others’ point of view on a
wide range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Identify specific information in unsupported extended talk
 Explain and justify point of view
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Listen to the news report “Organic Foods Have Same Nutritional Value” and answer to
the questions. Link: https://www.englishclub.com/efl/listening-news/2012-09-04/
1. What affects nutritional value
2. What are the reasons of consuming organic food?
3. What was the main conclusion of the Stanford study?
4. Why don’t critics agree with this study?
5. What is certified-organic food?
Task 2. Share your opinion on following questions. Provide explanations and justifications.
Do you choose organic food over non-organic food at the grocery store? Why?
Which types of food are you most careful about buying? Why?
Transcript:
Organic Foods Have Same Nutritional Value.
A new study out of Stanford University suggests that organic foods have no additional
nutritional value than non-organic foods. The study suggests that other factors, such as the
ripeness of the produce when it is picked, determine the nutritional quality. The study did
find that organic food contained significantly less pesticide residue than non-organic food.
Despite the massive research that went into the study, critics say that the research is flawed
and based on short-term evidence. Consumers have a variety of reasons for choosing organic
foods, including concerns about animal welfare and the environment. Certified-organic food
is produced with environmentally and animal-friendly production methods, and does not
contain genetically modified ingredients.
The main conclusion of the Stanford study was that organic food does not have greater
nutritional value than non-organic food. Critics don’t agree with this study because it is
based on short-term evidence. Certified-organic food is food that does not contain
genetically modified ingredients, and is produced with environmentally and animal friendly
production methods. Pesticide use is limited.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  identifies specific information;
 answers to the questions;
Task 2  shares opinion;
 gives explanations to the answers;
 provides justifications to the answers.
50
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic worlds
Subunit Discussing the difference between organic and non-organic food
Learning objective 10.3.6 Navigate talk and modify language through paraphrase and
correction in talk on a wide range of familiar and some
unfamiliar general and curricular topics
10.4.5 Deduce meaning from context in extended texts on a wide
range of familiar general and curricular topics, and some
unfamiliar topics
10.6.13 Use a growing variety of past modal forms including must
have, can’t have , might have to express speculation and
deduction about the past on a wide range of familiar
general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Use paraphrasing and correction to modify language
 Identify relevant meaning according to the context
 Use past modal forms to express speculation and deduction
about the past
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. Read the text about organic food and mark the statements (a-h) True or False.
Organic Food No More Nutritious
Scientists have revealed that organic and non-organic food
contain pretty much the same amounts and kinds of vitamins and
other nutrients. This might be surprising news for those of us
who choose to buy organic believing it to be healthier.
Researchers from America's Stanford University concluded that
there might not be any extra health benefits to buying organic,
thus people might be better off saving their money and buying
non-organic produce. Lead researcher Dr Crystal Smith-Spangle said there was no difference in the
vitamin content in fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products in organically- and conventionallyproduced food. She said the only difference was slightly more phosphorus in the organic products.
Dr Smith-Spangle's review of over 200 different reports on organic food suggests people
should perhaps revise their shopping choices, based on the levels of pesticides. Smith Spangler said
both organic and conventional foods rarely exceeded the allowable limits for pesticides in the
USA. She said the evidence wasn't too clear on whether the difference in pesticides would have an
effect on health. She concluded by saying consumers should know there is overwhelming evidence
that eating fruit and vegetables is good for your health, so people should eat more fresh produce,
whether it is organic or conventional. Organic foods accounted for $31 billion in sales in the USA
last year, up from $3.6 billion in 1997.
1. Scientists have found that non-organic food is no longer nutritious. True/False
2. The article suggests people shouldn't waste money on organic food. True/False
3. Research says vitamin content in organic/non-organic food is the same. True/False
4. The researcher said there was more phosphorus in non-organic food. True/False
5. The researcher said people should think more about pesticides. True/False
6. Non-organic food in the U.S. contains pesticides over acceptable limits. True/False
7. The researcher advised people to buy more fruit and vegetables. True/False
8. Spending on organic food in the USA has doubled since 1997. True/False
51
Task 2. Have a discussion about organic food in pairs by asking and answering the questions
below. Use paraphrasing and correction to modify your speech. Use past modal forms to express
speculation and deduction where relevant.
LEARNER A's QUESTIONS
- What did you think when you read the headline?
- What comes to your mind when you hear the word 'organic food'?
- Are you a fan of organic food?
- Do you worry about how healthy the food you eat is?
- Are you a healthy eater?
- Do you think you should eat more organic food?
- Do you think organic food could be a marketing trick?
- Are you surprised by this news?
- Why did (does) everyone believe organic food is healthier?
- Do you think organic food tastes any different to "conventional" food?
LEARNER B's QUESTIONS
- Did you like reading this article?
- Do you ever think about what pesticides or other chemicals are in your food?
- Are you happy with food controls and regulations in your country?
- Should the government encourage healthy eating more often?
- Do you eat lots of fruit and vegetables?
- Could you change to eating a raw diet?
- Do you always believe the claims of companies who push their "healthy" food on us?
- Which country's cuisine do you think is healthiest?
- Do you think more of us should grow our own food?
- What questions would you like to ask researcher Dr. Crystal Smith-Spangle?
Task 3. Peer assess the responses according to the criteria.
Criteria Excellent Needs some
improvement
Needs much
improvement
Peers
recommendations
Answers are relevant
Answers are grammatically
accurate
Answers are paraphrased, not
used from the text
Relevant vocabulary is used
Past modal forms are used
Retrieved from: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1209/120904-organic_food.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  answers to the questions;
Task 2  responds appropriately to others’ ideas, statements by evaluating and
restating expressions and different ideas;
 asks and answers topic related and supporting questions, paraphrases
them if necessary;
 uses arrange of modal verbs;
 applies paraphrasing techniques in communication;
 maintains control and improves fluency and accuracy of speaking.
52
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic worlds
Subunit Discussing the difference between organic and non-organic
food
Learning objective 10.4.5 Deduce meaning from context in extended texts on a
wide range of familiar general and curricular topics,
and some unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Identify the meaning and details of the reading texts
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Task 1. Read the text and decide whether the statements below true (T) or false (F).
Organic Food No More Nutritious
Scientists have revealed that organic and non-organic food contain pretty much the same
amounts and kinds of vitamins and other nutrients. This might
be surprising news for those of us who choose to buy organic
believing it to be healthier. Researchers from America's
Stanford University concluded that there might not be any
extra health benefits to buying organic, thus people might be
better off saving their money and buying non-organic
produce. Lead researcher Dr Crystal Smith-Spangle said there was no difference in the
vitamin content in fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products in organically- and
conventionally-produced food. She said the only difference was slightly more phosphorus in
the organic products.
Dr Smith-Spangle's review of over 200 different reports on organic food suggests people
should perhaps revise their shopping choices, based on the levels of pesticides. Smith
Spangler said both organic and conventional foods rarely exceeded the allowable limits for
pesticides in the USA. She said the evidence wasn't too clear on whether the difference in
pesticides would have an effect on health. She concluded by saying consumers should know
there is overwhelming evidence that eating fruit and vegetables is good for your health, so
people should eat more fresh produce, whether it is organic or conventional. Organic foods
accounted for $31 billion in sales in the USA last year, up from $3.6 billion in 1997.
1. Scientists have found that non-organic food is no longer nutritious. T / F
2. The article suggests people shouldn't waste money on organic food. T / F
3. Research says vitamin content in organic/non-organic food is the same. T / F
4. The researcher said there was more phosphorus in non-organic food. T / F
5. The researcher said people should think more about pesticides. T / F
6. Non-organic food in the U.S. contains pesticides over acceptable limits. T / F
7. The researcher advised people to buy more fruit and vegetables. T / F
8. Spending on organic food in the USA has doubled since 1997. T / F
Retrieved from: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1209/120904-organic_food.html
Descriptor A learner
 marks statements T/F.
53
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic worlds
Subunit Discussing the difference between organic and non-organic
food
Learning objective 10.1.5 Use feedback to set personal learning objectives
10.6.5 Use a wide variety of question types on a wide range
of familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Reflect on feedback and set personal learning
objectives
 Use a wide variety of question types
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Organic food survey Write five open-ended questions about organic food in the
table. Write the questions on your own paper. Design the questions in accordance with the
suggested criteria. When you have finished, interview other learners in your group. Write
down their answers.
Learner 1
_____________
Learner 2
_____________
Learner 3
_____________
Q.1.
Q.2.
Q.3.
Q.4.
Q.5.
Now make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.
Peer assessment on the quality of questions:
Criteria Excellent
questions
Needs some
improvement
Needs much
improvement
Peers
recommendations
1 Questions are open-ended
2 Questions are thought
provoking
3 Questions are
grammatically accurate
4 Wide range of topical
vocabulary is used in a
relevant way
Task 2. Write 10 min reflection, taking into account peers` recommendations. Identify
successes and areas for personal improvement in your questioning skills; highlight three -five
personal learning objectives in relation to your questioning skills.
54
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  creates open-ended, thought provoking questions;
 uses question structures accurately;
 uses a range of topical vocabulary in relevant way;
Task 2  identifies success learning areas in questioning skills using peers`
feedback;
 identifies areas for personal learning development in questioning
skills using feedback;
 identifies three-five specific areas in questioning skills for
personal learning objectives.
55
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic worlds
Subunit Analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels
Learning objective 10.4.2 Understand specific information and detail in extended
texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics,
and some unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Identify specific information and detail in extended texts
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Task. Read the text and decide whether the statements below true (T) or false (F).
Production of biofuels set to rise
The world’s production of biofuels is set to rise rapidly
over the next ten years. This is according to a new report by the
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The report
stated that increased global demand for biofuels will “boost
international trade” over the next decade. This is because of
rising concerns about global warming and the search for
alternative energies. Governments around the world are
desperate to reduce the amount of fossil fuels they use so they can meet their CO2 targets. The
current record price of oil is fueling the scramble for biofuels. New biofuel production plants are
springing up in developed countries all over the world. The race is on to produce clean and
economically-friendly biofuels that will provide up to 20 per cent of the energy needs in the
major world economies.
Biofuels are not without their critics. Many people believe they are a major cause of the
current rise in food prices. Industry analysts disagree and say biofuels make up only five percent
of these increases, and that supply and demand is more to blame. However, it seems that a sharp
rise in biofuel production would greatly influence food prices. This is because more wheat, seeds,
palm oil and sugar would go into making biofuels instead of feeding people and farm animals.
There is a danger that food riots could spread across the world, even to rich countries. People
would have cheaper fuel for their cars but more expensive food on store shelves. This would
greatly increase the gap between the haves and have-nots. In October 2007, a United Nations
spokesperson called biofuels a "crime against humanity".
1. The production of biofuels will more than double over the next decade. T / F
2. The demand for biofuels will help increase global trade. T / F
3. Governments are extremely keen to replace fossil fuels with biofuels. T / F
4. There is an international competition to produce a clean biofuel. T / F
5. There are no critics of biofuels. T / F
6. Analysts believe biofuels are a major cause of rising food prices. T / F
7. It’s possible that food riots might break out in developed countries. T / F
8. A UN official said biofuels were a crime against humanity. T / F
Retrieved from: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/0805/080530-biofuel.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  identifies whether the statements true or false.
56
Unit 4: Organic and non-organic worlds
Subunit Analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels
Learning objective 10.1.9 Use imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences
and feelings
10.3.4 Evaluate and comment on the views of others in a
growing variety of talk contexts on a growing range of
general and curricular topics
10.6.17 Use if / if only in third conditional structures use a
variety of relative clauses including with which [whole
previous clause reference] on a wide range of familiar
general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Use imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences
and feelings
 Evaluate and comment on the views of others
 Use if / if only in third conditional structures
 Use a variety of relative clauses
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task. Discuss with your partner the following questions. While discussing take into account the
speaking criteria:
- Express opinion and creative ideas
- Evaluate and comment your partner’s answer
- Use if / if only in third conditional structures
- Use a variety of relative clauses
LEARNER A’s QUESTIONS
- What springs to mind when you hear the term ‘biofuel’?
- What do you know about biofuels?
- Are you worried about the rise in food and oil prices?
- Do you think the rise in biofuels production is good or bad for the world?
- What does your country have to do to meet its CO2 targets?
- Do you think there are better alternatives to biofuels?
- How economically friendly do you think biofuels are?
- Do you think the world’s major economies should reduce the energy they use?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------LEARNER B’s QUESTIONS
- What adjectives would you use to describe today’s situation of rising prices?
- What do critics of biofuels say?
- How can supply and demand be to blame for rising food prices?
- What increases in food prices have you noticed?
- Do you think farmers should grow crops for fuel or food?
- Have there been food riots in your country? Would you protest in the streets?
- What do you think life is like for the have-nots?
- What questions would you like to ask the UN spokesperson?
57
Descriptor A learner
 conveys relevant and creative ideas;
 evaluates and comments partner’s answer;
 uses if / if only in third conditional structures;
 uses a variety of relative clauses.
58
TERM 3
Unit 5: Reading for pleasure
Subunit Learners read a non-fiction text
Learning objective 10.4.4 Read a wide range of extended fiction and non-fiction
texts on familiar and unfamiliar general and curricular
topics
10.3.5 Interact with peers to make hypotheses about a wide
range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Skim and scan the extended fiction or non-fiction texts to
identify the general information
 Interact with peers to make hypotheses
Level of thinking skills Application
Higher order thinking skills
To create interest in the topic and activate schemata, ask learners what they know about Albert
Einstein.
Task 1. Read the biography of Albert Einstein and put the events of his life in the correct order,
the first one has been done as an example for you.
____ He moved to the USA
____ He left his job at the patent office
__1_ He migrated to Italy
____ He won the Nobel Prize for science
____ He received his PhD
Albert Einstein was born in March, 1879 and
died in April, 1955. Albert Einstein is known as
the father of modern physics and the inventor of
the theory of relativity. The theory of relativity is
what he is probably most well known for. The
Einstein name has become synonymous with the
word genius, and is generally used as a
compliment for people with high intelligence.
Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879
to Hermann Einstein, an engineer and his wife.
Pauline Koch. He was a consistent top student
during his elementary years and had shown a
continuing growing interest in the sciences. The Einsteins moved to Italy when their business
failed and from there Einstein continued his studies. At age 17, he renounced his German
citizenship to avoid military service and studied a four-year diploma course in physics and
mathematics teaching in Switzerland.
After graduation. Albert Einstein struggled to find a teaching post until he found a job at the
Swiss federal Office for Intellectual Property. His examination work at the patent office later led
him to formulate radical theories about light and the relationship of time and space. In 1905, his
fame gradually increased after he was given a PhD at the University of Zurich. He then published
four papers regarding photoelectric effect Brownian motion, equivalence of matter and energy
and special relativity.
59
In 1908. Albert Einstein was recognized as a leading scientist and quit the patent office to
secure a teaching post at the University of Zurich. In 1911, he made headlines by theorizing that
the sun's gravity can bend light from other stars after which he was proven correct. He received
the Nobel Prize in his work on the photoelectric effect in 1921.
In 1933 Albert Einstein migrated to the United States because of the Nazis rise to power and
gained citizenship in 1940. In WWII, he and other scientists aided the US in developing the
Atomic Bomb and pressed regret a year before his death Einstein died in 1955 at the age of 76.
Task 2. Discuss the following question in pairs.
‘Albert Einstein and other scientists aided the US in developing the Atomic Bomb
and pressed regret a year before his death.’ Why do you think Einstein regretted
inventing the atomic bomb?
Answer keys
Task 2: 1 He migrated to Italy; 2 He received his PhD; 3 He left his job at the patent office; 4 He
won the Nobel Prize for science; 5 He moved to the USA.
References
The text is retrieved from http://canada-esl.com/printscript/printpage.php
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 skims and scan the text;
 puts the events of Einstein`s life in the correct order;
 shares ideas and hypothesis regarding the question.
60
Unit 5: Reading for pleasure
Subunit Learners read a non-fiction text
Learning objective 10.5.2 Use a growing range of vocabulary, which is appropriate
to topic and genre, and which is spelt accurately;
10.5.4 Use style and register to achieve appropriate degree of
formality in a growing variety of written genres on a range
of general and curricular topics
10.6.16 Use a wide variety of conjunctions on a wide range of
familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Select appropriate vocabulary when writing
 Use appropriate style and register
 Apply various conjunctions appropriate to the topic
Level of thinking skills Application
Learners have read the biography of Einstein. Now, learners are asked to write a biography of a
famous person. They are informed that by the end of the unit they will present their findings.
Learners are free to choose a person to write about. Learners can work individually or in pairs.
Task 1. Choose a famous person to write about. Use the Internet to find information about this
person and use the graphic organizer below to write a plan.
Task 2. Write a biography of the person you have chosen. You should:
 Include 3-4 important facts about the person
 Use topic-related vocabulary
61
 Use conjunctions
 Use appropriate style
Reference
Graphic organizer is retrieved from
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/FreeDownload/Biography-Graphic-Organizer-Elementary-634279
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 completes the graphic organizer with relevant information;
 includes 3-4 facts in the biography;
 uses topic vocabulary;
 uses appropriate conjunctions in the biography;
 uses appropriate style.
62
Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain
Subunit Investigate and report on the functions of the brain
Learning objective 10.2.2 Understand specific information in unsupported
extended talk on a wide range of general and curricular topics,
including talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Identify specific information in extended talk
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Task 1. Listen and choose correct answer to each question.
https://ed.ted.com/lessons/could-your-brain-repair-itself-ralitsa-petrova#watch
1. Which cells in the adult brain produce new neurons?
A. Embryonic stem cells
B. Neurons
C. Neural stem cells
D. Ependymal cells
2. Which of the following is not an area where new neurons are generated?
A. Amygdala
B. Dentate gyrus (part of the hippocampus)
C. Sub ventricular zone
D. Striatum
3. What factors have been shown to possibly stimulate the neurogenic process?
A. BDNF
B. GDNF
C. Transplanted healthy human stem cells
D. B and C
4. What type of brain cell, other than neural stem cells, can be coaxed into generating
neurons?
A. Purkinje cells
B. Astrocytes
C. Schwann cells
D. Microglia
5. Which brain region plays a role in learning the memory?
A. Olfactory bulb
B. Striatum
C. Hippocampus
D. Cerebellum
Transcript:
Imagine the brain could reboot, updating its withered and damaged cells with new, improved
units. That may sound like science fiction, but it's a potential reality scientists are investigating
right now. Will our brains one day be able to self-repair? It's well known that embryonic cells in
our young developing brains produce new neurons, the microscopic units that make up the brain's
tissue. Those newly generated neurons migrate to various parts of the developing brain, making it
self-organize into different structures.
63
But until recently, scientists thought cell production came to an abrupt halt soon after this
initial growth, leading them to conclude that neurological diseases, like Alzheimer's and
Parkinson's, and damaging events, like strokes, are irreversible. But a series of recent discoveries
has revealed that adult brains actually do continue to produce new cells in at least three
specialized locations.
This process, known as neurogenesis, involves dedicated brain cells, called neural stem cells
and progenitor cells, which manufacture new neurons or replace the old ones. The three regions
where neurogenesis has been discovered are the dentate gyros, associated with learning and
memory, the sub ventricular zone, which may supply neurons to the olfactory bulb for
communication between the nose and brain, and the striatum, which helps manage movement.
Scientists don't yet have a good grasp on exactly what role neurogenesis plays in any of these
regions, or why they have this ability that's absent from the rest of the brain, but the mere
presence of a mechanism to grown new neurons in the adult brain opens up an amazing
possibility.
Could we harness that mechanism to get the brain to heal its scars similar to how new skin
grows to patch up a wound, or a broken bone stitches itself back together? So here's where we
stand. Certain proteins and other small molecules that mimic those proteins can be administered
to the brain to make neural stem cells and progenitor cells produce more neurons in those three
locations.
This technique still needs improvement so that the cells reproduce more efficiently and more
cells survive. But research shows that progenitor cells from these areas can actually migrate to
places where injury has occurred and give rise to new neurons there. And another promising
possible approach is to transplant healthy human neural stem cells, which are cultured in a
laboratory, to injured tissue, like we can do with skin. Scientists are currently experimenting to
determine whether transplanted donor cells can divide, differentiate and successfully give rise to
new neurons in a damaged brain. They've also discovered that we might be able to teach other
kinds of brain cells, such as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes to behave like neural stem cells and
start generating neurons, too. So, a couple of decades from now will our brains be able to selfrepair?
We can't say for sure, but that has become one of the major goals of regenerative medicine.
The human brain has 100 billion neurons and we're still figuring out the wiring behind this huge
biological motherboard. But every day, research on neurogenesis brings us closer to that reboot
switch.
Retrieved from: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/could-your-brain-repair-itself-ralitsa-petrova#watch
Descriptor A learner
 chooses correct options to the answers.
64
Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain
Subunit Investigate and report on the functions of the brain
Learning objective 10.4.2 Understand specific information and detail in extended
texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics,
and some unfamiliar topics
10.4.8 Use a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar paper and
digital reference resources to check meaning and extend
understanding
Assessment criteria  Identify specific information and detail in extended text
 Use a dictionary or other digital resources to understand
the meaning of a word and expand vocabulary
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task. Read the text. Use reference resources to check meaning of the words in bold.
Adolescents are Brain-Dense — and That’s Good
The brain consists of two types of tissues: gray matter and
white matter. The white matter provides connections to brain’s
processing regions. The gray matter coordinates that processing.
The nerve cells of gray matter help control emotions,
understanding and movement. They also respond to the senses,
such as touch, smell and sound.
Now, scientists have found that gray matter in adolescents is denser than that in children.
This adds vital information to existing beliefs about the developing brain. Neuroscientists study
the brain and nervous system. Many years ago, they showed that kids lose gray matter as they
enter adolescence. Yet, their brain function is not affected. Scientists have been trying ever since to
explain how young adults cope with the loss of gray matter.
It turns out that scientists — just like everyone else — sometimes confuse two types of
physical traits, such as density and volume. Volume is the three-dimensional space something
takes up. Density is how much mass has been crammed into that space. Neuroscientists typically
figure out the volume and density of gray matter by analyzing brain scans, explains Ruben Gur,
who led the new research. He’s a neuroscientist at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
“When people studied aging, they looked at density and volume [of gray matter],” he notes.
“And they found that both go down.” Gur believes this led scientists to assume that both of these
traits are so related that they essentially provide the same information. That led some
neuroscientists who were studying the transition into adulthood to measure the volume only. They
ignored gray matter’s density within that volume.
Indeed, Gur’s Pennsylvania colleague, Efstathios Gennatas, was skeptical about relying only
on volume. Also a neuroscientist, he points out that an old brain is not the same as a brain
transitioning from childhood to adulthood. Brain cells begin to die off in old age. That leaves the
elderly with less gray matter. Not surprisingly, brain function tends to worsen in old people.
Retrieved from: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/adolescents-are-brain-dense-andthats-good
Descriptor A learner
 uses reference resources to check meaning of words.
65
Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain
Subunit Investigate and report on the functions of the brain
Learning objective 10.1.10 Use talk or writing as a means of reflecting on and
exploring a range of perspectives on the world
10.4.2 Understand specific information and detail in extended
texts on a range of familiar general and curricular topics,
and some unfamiliar topics
10.4.8 Use a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar paper and
digital reference resources to check meaning and extend
understanding
Assessment criteria  Express opinion on a wide range of perspectives on the
world
 Identify specific information and detail in extended text
 Use a dictionary or other digital resources to understand
the meaning of a word and expand vocabulary
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. Walk around the class and talk to other learners about ‘BEING BILINGUAL’. Change
partners often. Sit with your first partner(s) and share your findings.
Task 2. Read the text and decide whether the statements below true (T) or false (F)..
Being Bilingual Boosts Brainpower
A study by the USA's Northwestern University provides biological
evidence that people who are bilingual have a more powerful brain. Drs
Viorica Marian and Nina Kraus investigated how bilingualism affects the
brain. They found that studying another language "fine-tunes" people's
attention span and enhances their memory. In particular they discovered that
when language learners attempt to understand speech in another language, it
activates and energises the brainstem – an ancient part of the brain. Professor
Kraus stated: "Bilingualism serves as enrichment for the brain and has real consequences when it
comes to attention and working memory."
Professor Marian explained why studying and learning another language was so beneficial
for the brain. She said: "People do crossword puzzles and other activities to keep their minds
sharp, but the advantages we've discovered in dual language speakers come automatically simply
from knowing and using two languages." She added: "It seems that the benefits of bilingualism
are particularly powerful and broad, and include attention, inhibition and encoding of sound."
She said bilinguals were better listeners because they are "natural jugglers" of sound. She said:
"The bilingual juggles linguistic input and, it appears, automatically pays greater attention to
relevant versus irrelevant sounds."
1. A university said bilingual people have more powerful brains. T/F
2. Researchers say studying languages increases our ability to focus. T/F
3. Listening to other languages activates a newly-found part of the brain. T/F
4. The researchers say bilingualism enhances attention and memory. T/F
5. The study says bilingual people are better at crossword puzzles. T/F
6. Researchers say good things come automatically with bilingualism. T/F
7. The researchers said bilinguals are good at juggling different objects. T/F
8. A professor said bilinguals totally ignore irrelevant sounds. T/F
66
Task 3. Use reference resources to find meanings, collocations, synonyms and antonyms for the
words 'brain' and 'power'. Write 2-3 example sentences.
BRAIN POWER
Meaning
Collocations
Synonyms
Antonyms
Examples
Retrieved from: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1205/120504-brain_power.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  shares opinion on the topic;
 listens to others’ opinion;
 shares findings;
Task 2  identifies whether the statements T/F;
Task 3  contributes to group work;
Task 4  uses referencing resources to find information;
 completes the table.
67
Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain
Subunit Investigate and report on the functions of the brain
Learning objective 10.4.1 Understand main points in extended texts on a wide range
of familiar and some unfamiliar general and curricular topics
10.4.5 Deduce meaning from context in extended texts on a wide
range of familiar general and curricular topics, and some
unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Identify main points in extended texts
 Deduce meaning from context in extended texts
Level of thinking skills Knowledge and comprehension
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Read the text and highlighting the main ideas and details.
ANXIOUS ABOUT MATH? YOUR BRAIN MAY TACKLE SIMPLE PROBLEMS
DIFFERENTLY
Some people get jittery when faced with simple math
problems. And they may rely more heavily on certain brain
circuits than do people who do not experience such math
anxiety. That's the finding of a new study. Using a different
mental approach might help explain why people with math
anxiety struggle more with complex problems.
To figure out what was going on, researchers placed
adults in a brain-scanning device. Called a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine, it
measures blood flow in the brain. This lets researchers see which brain regions are active at a
particular point in time. For the new study, the study recruited people with and without math
anxiety. All of the adults were asked to answer whether simple math problems — such as
9+2=11— were correct or not. Both groups had similar response times. Each group also was
equally accurate. The brain scans, however, turned up some differences.
In people who weren’t anxious about math, there was less activity in one brain region. It is
called the frontoparietal (FRUN-tow-pah-RY-eh-tul) attention network. It is involved in working
memory and the solving of problems. Less activity here was linked to performing better. But not in
math-anxious people. Those adults showed no link between performance and the level of activity
in this network.
People who relied on this circuit less were probably getting ahead by automating simple
math, said Hyesang Chang. She’s a cognitive neuroscientist who works at the University of
Chicago in Illinois. She reported her team's findings March 25 here at the annual meeting of the
Cognitive Neuroscience Society.
People who get anxious over math showed more varied brain activity overall. That led
Chang to speculate that these people might be tackling math in a different way. Their brains might
be using a variety of approaches — and in ways that use more brain resources. This scattershot
approach works fine for simple math, she said. But the brains of those with math anxiety might get
maxed out when the math is more challenging.
Task 3. Read definitions of words, phrases and identify the words referring to the text.
1. A technique to view structures inside the brain, typically with X-rays or a magnetic
resonance imaging (or MRI) machine. With MRI technology — especially the type known
as functional MRI (or fMRI) — the activity of different brain regions can be viewed during
68
an event, such as viewing pictures, computing sums or listening to music.
Answer: ___________ _____________
2. A network of that transmits electrical signals. In the body, nerve cells create circuits that
relay electrical signals to the brain. In electronics, wires typically route those signals to
activate some mechanical, computational or other function.
Answer: _______________
3. A term that relates to mental activities, such as thinking, learning, remembering and
solving puzzles.
Answer: ______________
4. (fMRI) A special type of machine used to study brain activity. It uses a strong magnetic
field to monitor blood flow in the brain. Tracking the movement of blood can tell researchers
which brain regions are active. (See also, MRI or magnetic resonance imaging)
Answer: __________ ___________ ________________ _____________
5. The field of science that deals with the structure or function of the brain and other parts
of the nervous system. Researchers in this field are known as neuroscientists.
Answer: ____________
6. The ability to hold something in the mind for a short period of time, such as a mental
grocery list or a phone number.
Answer: _________ ____________
Task 4. Answer to the questions and complete the task.
 What is the main argument of the author?
 What facts, examples and evidence are provided by the author?
 Write short summary of the text according to the following steps:
Paragraph 1. State the main idea/ topic and the supporting arguments.
Paragraph 2. The first argument plus some supporting evidence.
Paragraph 3. The second argument plus some supporting evidence.
Paragraph 4. The third argument plus some supporting evidence.
Paragraph 5. Repeat thesis. Repeat arguments. Concluding statement.
Answer keys:
Task 2
1 brain scan
2 circuit
3 cognitive
4 functional magnetic resonance imaging
5 neuroscience
6 working memory
Retrieved from: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/anxious-about-math-your-brainmay-tackle-simple-problems-differently
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  employs active reading strategies;
69
Task 2  identifies the meaning of the words;
Task 3  identifies main argument of the author;
 provides facts, examples and evidence from the text;
 produces short summary.
70
Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain
Subunit Investigate and report on the functions of the brain
Learning objective 10.5.1 Plan, write, edit and proofread work at text level independently
on a range of general and curricular topics
10.1.4 Evaluate and respond constructively to feedback from others
Assessment criteria  Write accurate and well-structured paragraph
 Provide constructive feedback
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension, Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Learners pair share their ideas on the topic “Capabilities of Human Brain”. A visual is a
support to brainstorm ideas on the topic.
Engage learners with the topic by having them turn and talk to a partner, sharing
what they know about the human brain.
As they talk, label a piece of chart paper 'The Human Brain' and create the subtitle
'What we know about the human brain.'
Ask partners to share what they discussed and list on the chart paper.
Share what you know about the human brain.
Task 2. Learners create vocabulary bank on the topic “Capabilities of Human Brain”, group
work.
Create relevant vocabulary bank on the topic.
Nouns Verbs Adjectives Phrases
Example:
Perception
Example:
Perform
Example:
Insightful
Example:
Cognitive skills
Task 3. Learners write one well-structured paragraph on the topic “Benefits of Being Bilingual:
the more languages you know the better is your brain development”. Agree or disagree.
Group work: learners are divided in two groups, the first one, those who agree, the second one,
who opposes the statement. Learners brainstorm and share ideas on the thesis of the paragraph.
Inform learners about the general outline of the paragraph:
 Topic sentences
 Explanation
 Example
Get down to writing according to the 8 steps:
a) Decide on a topic.
b) Explore ideas about the topic through thinking.
c) Formulate a main idea, and decide what points you want to make to support it.
d) Select details and examples from reading or personal experience.
e) Decide on the order in which you'll present your ideas and examples.
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f) Write a first draft.
g) Edit and revise the first draft for content, style, and writing mechanics.
h) Write a final draft.
Task 4. Learners peer assess the final draft of the paragraph.
Read final drafts and peer assess according to the criteria:
# Criteria Yes/No/Needs improvement Peers comments
1 Paragraph is well
structured
2 Vocabulary is relevant
3 Grammar is accurate
4 Example is specific
5 4-5 linking words are used
Teacher`s resource:
Task 1
Definition: the organ inside the head that controls thought, memory, feelings, and activity.
Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/brain
Examples:
 Marie has an amazing brain (= is very intelligent).
 That can't possibly be the right way to do it - use your brain!
 The poor child inherited his mother's brains and his father's looks.
 He's got brains but he's too lazy to use them (= he is intelligent but lazy).
Task 2
Useful vocabulary:
Nouns: neurology, cells, capacity, ability, storage, skills, multifunctioning, perceptions, reaction,
communication, response, research, evidence, study
Verbs: function, transmit, boost, enhance, reflect, store, trigger, deter, prevent, develop, overcome,
respond, react, reveal, present
Adjectives: insightful, deep, extensive, adverse, positive, scientific, current,
Phrases: adverse effects, positive effects, be aware of, due to…, regardless of …., what is more, in
other words, finally.
Task 3
Sample paragraph
(Topic sentence): Language study by an individual deters the cause of a wide range of mental
diseases. (Explanation): Firstly, the complex brain structure activates other cells while being
exposed to the consistent language study practices. Furthermore, regular trainings of cell structure
enhance the overall functioning of the intellectual organ. In other words, once a learner memorizes
vocabulary or compound grammar rules, then the brain signals transmit the impulses to other cell
centers. Consequently, the more training the brain gets, the less are the chances to physical and
mental brain decay. (Example): The above mentioned fact could be exemplified by a recent
research of Cambridge University in 2015, which provides sound evidence delivered by the
survey. According to the survey, 79% of multilingual respondents claimed that they did not suffer
from dementia.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  identifies definition of the word;
 shares background knowledge and experience;
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 brainstorms ideas on thesis of the paragraph;
Task 2  completes the chart paper;
 writes the list of relevant vocabulary;
Task 3  writes one well-structured paragraph;
 provides topic sentence, explanation and example;
Task 4  peer assesses according to the criteria;
 gives constructive feedback on partner’s work.
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Unit 6: Capabilities of Human Brain
Subunit Describing the symptoms of stress and giving advise on how to reduce
stress
Learning objective 10.1.10 Use talk or writing as a means of reflecting on and exploring a
range of perspectives on the world
10.5.3. Write with grammatical accuracy on a range of familiar general
and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Write with grammatical accuracy
 Connect sentences into coherent paragraphs
 Use appropriate layout in writing
 Spell high-frequency vocabulary correctly
 Use correct punctuation
 Reflect on a range of perspectives on the world
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension, Application, Higher order thinking
Task 1. Warm ups: Encourage learners to share ideas with partners.
STRESS: Walk around the class and talk to other learners about stress. Change partners often. Sit
with your first partner(s) and share your findings. CHAT: In pairs / groups, decide which of these
topics or words from the article are most interesting and which are most boring.
reports / stressful / attitudes / feeling relaxed / management positions / vacation /
information technology / de-stress / cut off contact / work remotely / switch off
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
A. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.
1. reveals a. major
2. questioned b. connected
3. attitudes c. de-stress
4. related d. surveyed
5. returning e. disconnected
6. main f. shows
7. cut off g. from afar
8. remotely h. totally
9. unwind i. opinions
10. fully j. coming back
B. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)
1. more stressful a. feeling relaxed
2. attitudes towards long b. unwind
3. come back from a holiday c. hundreds of e-mails
4. came back from a holiday more d. economy
5. returning to e. with work
6. the weakened global f. than working
7. cut off contact g. mode
8. Uncertain economic h. summer breaks
9. totally i. times
10. fully get into holiday j. stressed
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Task 2. Encourage learners to use active reading strategies while reading the text. Read the text
and highlight key ideas while reading.
Summer Holidays Stress Workers Out
A new report reveals that going on summer holiday may be more stressful than working. The
study, by the UK’s Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM),
questioned 2,500 of its members about attitudes towards long summer
breaks. It found forty per cent of managers do not come back from a
holiday feeling relaxed. A worrying finding was that many workers
came back from a holiday more stressed than when they left. Many in
lower- and upper-management positions actually work while they are
on vacation. The researchers discovered that 80 per cent of those surveyed answer work-related emails, around 50 per cent make and take business-related phone calls and 10 per cent go into the
office. Over 90 per cent of managers worried about returning to hundreds of e-mails. Information
technology and the weakened global economy are the main causes of managers being unable to destress while on holiday. Penny de Valk, chief executive of the ILM, said: "Gone are the days when
people cut off contact with work for a fortnight over the summer and made a complete break.
While technology means that it is easier than ever to work remotely, it also makes it extremely
hard to switch off. Uncertain economic times also mean that many UK employees are keeping one
eye on their job at all times, when what they really need is time away from the office to rest and reenergize.” The study also revealed that on average, it takes two days and seventeen hours into a
holiday to totally unwind. Ten per cent of managers said it took them up to a week to fully get into
holiday mode.
Task 3. Reflect on the problem of stress using the statement below.
Summer holiday is more stressful than studying. Agree or disagree. Justify your opinion; use your
prior experience, knowledge and skills. Ask your classmates about their opinion.
Task 4. Write a letter to a stressed worker. Ask him/her three questions about stress. Give him/her
three opinions on stress and how to reduce it.
While writing a letter use the following criteria to self-assess your writing performance.
№ Criteria Excellent
performance
Good
performance
Needs
improvement
Needs much
improvement
1 The letter is well
structured
2 Ideas are relevant
3 Sentences are
grammatically accurate
4 Writing demonstrates a
wide range of specific
and relevant vocabulary
5 Linkers are used
6 Ideas catch reader`s
attention
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Answer keys:
Task 1
A. SYNONYM MATCH:
1. reveals a. shows
2. questioned b. surveyed
3. attitudes c. opinions
4. related d. connected
5. returning e. coming back
6. main f. major
7. cut off g. disconnected
8. remotely h. from afar
9. unwind i. de-stress
10. fully j. totally
B. PHRASE MATCH:
1. more stressful a. than working
2. attitudes towards long b. summer breaks
3. come back from a holiday c. feeling relaxed
4. came back from a holiday more d. stressed
5. returning to e. hundreds of e-mails
6. the weakened global f. economy
7. cut off contact g. with work
8. uncertain economic h. times
9. totally i. unwind
10. fully get into holiday j. mode
Retrieved from: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1007/100723-stress.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  participates actively while sharing relevant ideas;
 performs accurate vocabulary matching;
Task 2  employs active reading strategies;
Task 3  reflects on a range of perspectives on the world
Task 4  writes accurately;
 uses academic vocabulary;
 develops well-structured paragraphs;
 uses a range of linkers.
76
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Nanotechnology
Learning objectives 10.2.3 Understand the detail of an argument in unsupported extended
talk on a wide range of general and curricular topics, including talk on
a limited range of unfamiliar topics
10.2.8 Recognise inconsistencies in argument in extended talk on a
range of general and curricular subjects
Assessment criteria  Identify detail of an argument in extended talks
 Identify inconsistencies in various circumstances on a range of
general and curricular subjects
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Task 1. To activate learners` schemata, ask them to look at the picture below and try to guess
what the recording is going to be about. Encourage them to work in pairs.
You are going to listen to a recording about technology. In pairs discuss the picture below and
guess what the recording is about.
Task 2. Allow learners to look through the questions before listening. One minute is enough. After
the first listening, let learners discuss their answers with partners. Then play the recording again.
When the recording ends, give learners one minute to tidy up their answers.
Go to this link to listen: https://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/artificial-intelligence-helpful-anddangerous/3334422.html Play the recording twice. (listen until 2.25)
Listen to the talk and answer the questions below. You will hear the recoding twice. You
have 1 minute to look through the questions.
1. The term AI (Artificial Intelligence) refers to thinking and _______________ behaviour
demonstrated by machines.
A) intelligence
B) intellect
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C) intelligent
2. Tick the AI that is mentioned as being ‘all around us’. There are 3 examples given.
Internet searches
Siri
GPS devices
Robots in service industries
Autopilots
Bus drivers
3. ‘It is very important that we make sure that we develop AI that does things that we are
happy with’. (circle one) True False
4. There are three jobs that are mentioned where humans may be replaced by AI in the
future. Tick  these industries that are mentioned:
Jobs in manufacturing
Jobs that require physical labour
Jobs that have repetitive duties
Jobs in education and training
Management and administration jobs
Jobs where studying a lot of data is needed
5. ‘Russell believes AI will not change our lives or the economy very much at all’.(circle one)
True False
Task 3. Complete an exit ticket answering the questions about the topic discussed in the talk.
Answer keys:
Task 1: Possible answers: robots, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology etc.
Task 2: Mark scheme
Question Correct answer Mark
1. c 1
2. Internet searches, Siri, Autopilots 1.5 (0.5 for each correct
word)
3. True 1
4. Jobs that require physical labour, Jobs that
have repetitive duties, Jobs where studying a
lot of data is needed
1.5 (0.5 for each correct
word)
5. False 1
Exit ticket
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of AI?
2. What do you personally think about AI?
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Task 3:
1. Advantages: Jobs that require a lot of physical labor will be replaced. E.g. agricultural jobs, jobs
with repetitive duties like telephone call centers, jobs in the financial industry, jobs that require
studying a lot of data. Good for health industry. E.g. AI can process huge amounts of data, so
doctors can use the most up-to-date information to diagnose and treat patients.
Disadvantages: Dangerous because can be used a weapon. E.g. combining drone aircraft
technology and AI to create autonomous weapons. People might use this technology to develop
nuclear weapon.
Transcript:
Computers and other machines have and will continue to change the way people do business
and how we live.
Many researchers use the term artificial intelligence (AI) to describe the thinking and
intelligent behavior demonstrated by machines. While AI can be helpful to human beings,
scientists warn, it can also be a threat.
We live with artificial intelligence all around us. A few examples are iPhone’s personal
assistant Siri, searches on the Internet, and autopilot programs on airplanes.
AI is not new. But it is quickly getting more and more complex, and, well, more intelligent.
Stuart Russell teaches computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. He says
humans should be sure to make AI products that we like.
”If we are going to make systems that are going to be more intelligent than us, it’s absolutely
essential for us to understand how to absolutely guarantee that they only do things that we are
happy with.”
In the future, Russell says, many of today’s jobs that require a lot of physical labor will be
replaced by machines with artificial intelligence. These include agricultural jobs, and ones with
repetitive duties like telephone call centers. AI machines could also replace jobs like ones in the
financial industry — jobs that require studying a lot of data.
This could lead to more questions.
”But if we replaced all the jobs that require human physical labor and then we replace all the
jobs that require human mental labor, then you have to ask, well, 'What’s left?'”
Russell sees artificial intelligence changing the economy and current way of life.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 makes hypotheses about the topic of a talk;
 discusses the picture;
 chooses appropriate answer;
 puts a tick in proper boxes;
 identifies true and false statements appropriately;
 comes up with at least 1 advantage and disadvantage mentioned
in the talk;
 expresses opinion about AI.
79
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Nanotechnology
Learning objective 10.4.7 Recognise patterns of development in lengthy texts
[inter-paragraph level] on a range of general and curricular
topics
Assessment criteria  Identify logical flow of events in a reading passage in
unfamiliar general and curricular topics
 Make connections between the features/details of the
paragraphs to analyze the text
Level of thinking skills Application
Task 1. Learners pair share their ideas on the questions.
Discuss the following questions with your partner.
5. How often do you use your mobile?
6. What would your life be like without your mobile telephone?
7. Do young people use mobile telephones too much?
8. Do you think schools should ban mobile phones?
Task 2.
Skim the passages below and match them with the corresponding headings (A-E). There is ONE
EXTRA heading you DO NOT NEED to use.
A) The Intelligent Telephone
B) Market Leaders
C) Eyes on the Road
D) Lost and Found
1. ________________________
Most mobile phones sold today have an operating system that was either designed by Apple or
Google. Apple makes the iOS operating system powering their iPhones and iPads. Google makes
the Android operating system that can be found on many different mobile phones and tablets. Both
of these operating systems allow users to connect to app stores and download applications. To
launch these applications, users press small square buttons that appear on their home screens. One
major difference between these two operating systems is that Apple makes all of its own hardware.
That is to say, the iOS operating system only appears on products created by Apple. On the other
hand, many different manufacturers like Samsung, Sony, and LG use the Android operating
system. Which one do you like better: Android or iOS?
2. ___________________
For better or worse, mobile phones are changing the world; however, one place where phones are
definitely making things worse is on the road. Today it is common for motorists to play with their
mobile phones while driving. Drivers may get bored or impatient while waiting in traffic and use
their smart phones to pass the time by checking sports scores, stock numbers, or news stories.
Worse still, they may engage in text messaging. Some drivers are so used to receiving and
responding to communications immediately that it does not occur to them to wait until an
appropriate time to respond. As soon as they get a message, these drivers will try to read and
respond to it. There are many reasons why people use cell phones while driving, but none of them
are good reasons
3. ____________________
A smart phone is a mobile phone with built-in computer system that can send emails, view
websites, or download applications. The first use of the term smart phone was in 1997, when
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Ericson described its GS 88 as a “smart phone.” In 2003 phones got even smarter when Andy
Rubin launched the Android mobile operating system. It would take years for the first Android
powered phone to reach the market, but today over 80%nof all mobile phones are powered by
Android. Yet, perhaps the biggest development in the history of smart phones occurred in 2007,
when the original iPhone was released. The first iPhone didn’t even have an app store, but it set
many of the standards that people have come to expect from smart phones, like using the phone
with just a finger on the screen rather than with a keypad or stylus. Smart phones have changed the
world and continue to improve. I don’t know where the future will take us, but I bet that the
phones will be cooler.
Task 3.
Read the passages from Task 2 and determine how each paragraph is mainly structured. Match
each paragraph with the corresponding graphic organizer. There are TWO graphic organizers you
DO NOT NEED to use.
Graphic Organizer
1.____________
2. ____________
3. ____________
Task 4. Ask learners which passage is about the drawbacks of using mobile phones. Ask them to
think of more drawbacks and share them with the whole class.
Decide which paragraph from Task 2 has information about drawbacks of using mobile phone.
Add your disadvantages of using mobile phones and share them with the whole class.
Answer keys:
Task 1: Suggested answers. I use my phone every hour to use Facebook, VK and Instagram. I
can`t even imagine my life without a mobile phone. It would be definitely inconvenient because I
would send real letters instead of messages or have to carry my CD player to listen to music. Yes,
they do. Some of them are addicted to their mobile phones. They cannot stay away from them,
even for a minute. They play games, chat with their peers, watch videos and listen to music.
Mobile phones should be banned during class, but not from schools altogether. There is still some
need for students to have contact with family.
Task 2: 1B, 2C, 3A D is extra
Task 3: 1 Compare and contrast, 2 Cause and Effect, 3 Chronological Order
Task 4: 2 Eyes on the Road. Suggested answers. Possible drawbacks: Eyesight issues. Hunching
over your phone screen for hours in the dark can strain your eyes. Isolation. Mobile phones can
drive people apart. Dependency. People become addicted to mobile phones and forget to
communicate in real life.
Reference
The text is retrieved from https://www.ereadingworksheets.com/text-structure-worksheets/textstructure-worksheet-8.htm
Descriptor A learner
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Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
 answers the questions relying on prior knowledge or
experience in a group;
 reads the paragraphs and identifies suitable headings for
each of them;
 identifies corresponding graphic organizers;
 comes up with disadvantages of mobile phone use.
82
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Nanotechnology
Learning objectives 10.1.8 Develop intercultural awareness through reading and discussion
10.6.17 Use if / if only in third conditional structures,
use a variety of relative clauses including with which [whole previous
clause reference] on a wide range of familiar general and curricular
topics
Assessment criteria  Foster intercultural awareness through active reading
 Use third conditional structures and a variety of relative clauses
on familiar topics
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1. Skim the text Top five inventions and discoveries made by accident. In pairs, discuss the
following questions.
 Do you agree with the order inventions and discoveries?
 Which invention or discovery is the most important for you?
Top five inventions and discoveries made by accident
1 Penicillin
The laboratory of Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming was extremely untidy. One day in 1928, he
came back from holiday and saw that mould had grown on a dish containing bacteria. Howaver
this wouldn't have been significant if Fleming hadn't noticed one important thing: that no bacteria
were growing in the areas covered by mould. In later experiments, Fleming proved that the mould
could kill the bacteria that cause human infections. Using this discovery, Howard Florey and Ernst
Boris Chain later developed penicillin for use as a medicine. In 1945, the three scientists shared the
Nobel Prize for Medicine.
2 Sticky notes
In 1968 Spencer silver an American research chemist, wanted to invent a strong glue. Instead, he
created a weak glue that stuck to objects but could be taken off again. A few years later a colleague
of Silver's, Arthur Fry was singing in church. His bookmarks kept falling out of his songbook and
suddenly he remembered Silver's glue. He successfully tried the glue on his bookmarks and later
developed his idea into sticky notes.
3 The microwave oven
While Percy Spencer was working on radar research in 1946, he made an interesting discovery. He
was testing a magnetron (a tube which produces microwaves) when he noticed a chocolate bar in
his pocket had melted. Spencer did some experiment and found out that microwaves can cook food
much more quickly than conventional ovens, because the food is cooked from inside, not by
warming the air around it. If Spencer hadn't invented the microwave, modern eating habits might
have been very different. Today more than 90% of households in the US have a microwave oven.
4 Safety glass
In 1903 the French scientist Edouard Benedictus broke glass a flask by accident. To his surprise h e
saw that the glass had broken our best into many small pieces but the pieces had stayed together.
He found out that liquid plastic in the flask had evaporated and left a thin film of plastic inside. By
chance, in the same week Benedictus read a newspaper article about how many drivers get cut by
broken glass in car accidents. He realised that he had made a useful discovery.
5 Cellophane
Swiss chemist Jacques E Brandenburger worked for a textile company. When he saw wine spilt on
a restaurant tablecloth, he was inspired to make a tablecloth that wouldn't stain. He used a
waterproof spray but the experiment didn't work; the tablecloth became too stiff. Brandenburger
noticed, however that the thin plastic film came off the cloth easily. Today his discovery,
cellophane, is used for wrapping up food.
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Task 2. Read the text and write which discovery or discoveries…
1. was/were made outside a laboratory?
2. was/were a result of not cleaning up?
3. can save lives?
4. developed out of a failed idea?
5. was/were a result of a different experiment?
6. was/were a result of two lucky events?
Task 3. Complete the sentences using information from the text
1. If Alexander Fleming hadn`t been so messy, he wouldn`t have_____________________
2. Arthur Fry wouldn`t have invented sticky notes if he ____________________________
3. If Edouard Benedictus hadn`t knocked over glass bar____________________________
4. Percy Le Baron Spencer wouldn`t have_______________ if a chocolate bar__________
5. If Jacques E Brandenburger_________________________________________________
Task 4. Think about how history would have been different if the things in the box hadn`t been
invented. Then work in pairs and compare your ideas.
Answer keys:
Task 1: Sample answer: I would change the order as follows penecilin, safety glass, microwave
oven, sticky notes and cellophane because sticky notes are not that important. Penecilin is the most
important invention to my mind as it can be used in medicine.
Task 2: 1 sticky notes; 2 penecilin; 3 safety glass; 4 sticky notes and cellophane, 5 microwave
oven; 6 safety glass.
Task 3: Suggested answers: 1 discovered penecilin; 2 hadn`t tried the glue invented by his
colleague; 3 he wouldn`t have discovered safety glass; 4 invented the microwave oven if a
chocolate bar hadn`t melted; 5 hadn`t worked for a textile company, he wouldn`t have discovered
cellophane.
Task 4: Sample answer:If the computer hadn`t been invented, the internet wouldn`t have been
developed. If the printing press hadn`t been invented, ordinary people wouldn`t have been able to
read books.
Descriptor
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
A learner
 skims the text and discusses questions in pairs;
 reads the text and identifies the correct discovery;
 completes the sentences with information from the text;
 uses third conditional structures correctly;
 uses third conditional structures to make sentences about
inventions;
 works in pairs and compares ideas.
car computer printing press
telephone TV
84
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Robotics
Learning objective 10.1.7 Develop and sustain a consistent argument when speaking or
writing
10.4.9 Recognise inconsistencies in argument in extended texts on a
wide range of general and curricular topics
10.6.6 Use a wide variety of relative, demonstrative, indefinite,
quantitative pronouns and reflexive pronoun structures on a wide range
of familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Present and advance an argument when speaking
 Identify inconsistencies in various circumstances on a range of
general and curricular subjects
 Apply various pronouns and pronoun structures
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Task 1.
What jobs do you think robots can do? Write as many different jobs as you can on the board.
Task 2.
You are going to read an article about the use of robots. Seven sentences have been removed from
the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is ONE
EXTRA sentence which you DO NOT NEED to use.
A) But does a physical robot really provoke a greater response in people than a much cheaper
animated agent on a computer screen could?
B) An attached camera can detect when the user changes position, allowing RoCo to adjust
its posture accordingly.
C) This does not mean that the robots of the future may be able to see things from our point
of view and correct us when we make bad decisions.
D) Using technology to manipulate someone or shape their mood is nothing new.
E) The robot had actually prompted lots of participants to declare that they would take up
more healthy activities, such as exercising and avoiding fatty foods.
F) They also believe that by tuning into users’ moods, the robot might help them to get their
work done more effectively.
G) Recently he has begun using it to represent him at meetings and classes at the Advanced
Telecommunications Research Institute when he can’t attend in person.
If you’re happy, the robot knows it
RoCo, the world’s first expressive computer, has a monitor for a head and a simple LCD
screen for a face.
1_____When you hang your head and sink into your chair, RoCo tilts forward and drops low
to almost touch the desk, mimicking your gloomy posture. When you perk up and straighten your
back, it spots the change and cheerfully swings forward and upward.
RoCo was unveiled at a human-robot interaction conference in Washington DC in March
2007. Because it responds to a user’s changes in posture, its creators hope people might be more
likely to build up a relationship with the computer that will make sitting at a desk a ll day a little
more enjoyable. 2____.
The team is among a growing number of researchers who are investigating how far a robot’s
physical presence can influence people. 3________Researchers at Stanford University in
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California have already proved that an in-car assistance system, for example, can make us drive
more carefully if the voice matches our mood. But robots can have a greater impact. ‘If it can
actually touch you, it’s a lot more meaningful,’ says Cynthia Breazeal of the Media Lab, who
created RoCo with her colleague Rosalind Picard.
Breazeal suggests that RoCo could be programmed to adopt the right posture to foster
greater attention and persistence in children. 4______To find out, Aaron Powers at iRobot in
Burlington, Massachusetts, and colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, invited volunteers to chat about health and happiness with a 1.3-metre-tall, talking
humanoid robot called Pearl. They then compared their impressions with those of people who had
only heard the robot and seen its projected image.
They found that volunteers rated the physical robot as more trustworthy, sociable,
responsive, competent, respectful and lifelike than the projected image of the robot. More
importantly, the researchers also found that the physical robot had the most influence over the
volunteers. 5_____
This persuasive power is important and is already being put to use in the classroom. Hiroshi
Ishiguro, a roboticist at Osaka University in Japan, has developed a remote-controlled robotic
clone of himself called Germinoid-H1. 6_____. Interestingly, his students preferred this to a video
or telephone link.
Task 3.
Imagine that you work for a robot design company. You and your team are responsible for
designing the next generation of robots. Talk to your team and decide on these points:
What will your robot be able to do?
What will your robot look like?
How much will your robot cost to buy?
What type of people will want to buy your robot?
What brand name will you give your robot?
Answer keys:
Task 1: Robots can be good housekeepers, gardeners; soldiers; stockroom workers, clerks etc.
Task 2: 1B; 2F; 3D; 4A; 5E; 6G.
Task 3: Our robot will be a soldier. It will be called Bomb finder. It will be a member of a bomb
squat and will respond to bomb-related incidents. The robot will have wheels and many different
sensors which will enable them to check suspicious objects and see bombs. It will cost about 5
million KZT. Police officers and military people will use it.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
 lists jobs that robots can do;
 reads the text and puts sentences in each gap correctly;
 works with a team and discusses the questions;
 comes up with a design of a robot.
86
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Robotics
Learning objective 10.1.8 Develop intercultural awareness through reading and discussion;
10.4.6 Recognise the attitude or opinion of the writer in extended texts
on a wide range of familiar general and curricular topics;
Assessment criteria  Foster intercultural awareness through active reading
 Determine the author’s point of view
 Identify the author’s argument and purpose
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Task 1. Pre-reading. Ask learners to make small groups and tell the groups the title of the
reading passage. The learners should work together to pool their knowledge of this topic. Again,
once the group has finished, each group can share their ideas with the other groups.
You are going to read an article. Look at its title and discuss anything you know about this topic.
Task 2. Read the article.
Teaching Household Robots Social Skills
Having robots around to do the laundry and mop the floors sounds like a great idea. But will
they be polite? How will they act and behave when interacting with humans? And how will you
teach them not to always have the TV remote control?
In only three years’ time there will be more than four million robots in domestic service in
homes throughout the world! That’s according to the latest United Nations report. They won’t,
however, be like C-3PO with their very own list of psychological ‘issues’, although they will still
need to follow codes of behaviour. But how can you teach robot social skills?
A Research Group at Hertfordshire University’s School of Computer Science is trying to
answer this question. Advances in technologies are making the dream of autonomous household
robots into a reality that is closer than we may think. In the very near future , robots could be as
common as vacuum cleaners and blenders, so their ‘personalities’ are going to be important. That
is why the Hertfordshire University group has hired behavioural psychologists to work alongside
programmers and electronics engineers.
The team is conducting experiments in which robots interact with people, assist them with
various household tasks, and even play with children. Observations and post-experimental surveys
are revealing. The person’s own personality-type, age and gender influences perceptions of the
robot. Service robots should really be able to assess and judge different types of people and react
accordingly – much as we do ourselves.
It is hoped the guidelines for robot etiquette will be established for when technology makes
robots ready to share a house with people. And for when people are ready to share a house with
robots.
How long will that be? ‘It might take five years, it might take twenty or more,’ says Bob
Dautenhahn, Head of the Research Group, cautiously. However long, it is probably inevitable.
Sceptics should note that large companies including Dyson, Electrolux and Hoover, are seriously
investing in home robotics. They should also remember similar doubts expressed about the
potential for home computers.
Of course the friendly C-3PO is not the only model of electronic companion. Anyone who
has seen 'The Terminator' will probably need little persuading as to the benefits of a charm school
for robots.
Answer the questions.
1. The main point being expressed in the opening paragraph is that …
A) robots will do the household chores
B) it will be necessary to teach robots social skills
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C) robots will be watching a lot of TV
2. In what way will service robots need to be like humans?
A) They need to be able to work out different people’s personalities
B) They must be able to play with children and protect them
C) They must have social skills like other electrical appliances
3. People who do not believe that household robots will be a common feature in the near
future should remember two things. What are they?_________________________
Task 3. Identify if the statements below are facts or opinions. Write F for facts and O for opinions.
1. Having robots around to do the housework sounds like a great idea. _______
2. In 3 years, there will be more than 4 million robots in domestic service in homes
throughout the world. _______
3. Robots could be as common as vacuum cleaners and blenders, so their ‘personalities’ are
going to be important. _______
4. The person’s own personality-type, age and gender influences perceptions of the robot.
_______
5. It is hoped the guidelines for robot etiquette will be established for when technology makes
robots ready to share a house with people. _______
6. However long, it is probably inevitable that people will share a house with robots. _______
7. Such large companies as Dyson, Electrolux and Hoover, are seriously investing in home
robotics. _______
Task 4. Think pair and share the question below.
Would you like to have a robot at home? Why yes/Why not?
Answer keys:
Task 1: Robot is a machine controlled by a computer. Robots can do dangerous tasks instead of
people. They are usually used in healthcare, army or mining but they can be also used in
household. Example, robot vacuum cleaners.
Task 2: 1b; 2a; 3 Large companies investing in home robotics, doubts over home computer.
Task 3: 1O; 2F; 3O; 4F; 5O; 6O; 7F.
Task 4: I would use a robot to provide personal security. They can be used as automatic cameras
and look for intruders.
Reference
The text is retrieved from
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/Robots%20student%20worksheet.pdf
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
 shares prior knowledge and personal experience;
 reads the text and identifies the main idea and specific details in
it;
 identifies facts and opinions correctly;
 shares thoughts and opinion about the topic.
88
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Robotics
Learning objectives 10.1.2 Use speaking and listening skills to provide sensitive feedback to
peers
10.5.5 Develop with support coherent arguments supported when
necessary by examples and reasons for a wide range of written genres in
familiar general and curricular topics;
10.6.8 Use a variety of future active and passive and future continuous
forms on a wide range of familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Provide constructive feedback to peers
 Write coherent arguments with support
 Include examples and reasons to support arguments in written
form
 Use future forms active and passive voice in writing
Level of thinking
skills
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. To activate learners` schemata, ask them to brainstorm potential benefits and drawbacks
of robots.
Answer the questions.
Intelligent machines such as robots are widely applied to take the place of human beings. Please
discuss the advantages and disadvantages. Work in groups and brainstorm possible advantages and
disadvantages of robots.
Task 2. You are going to write an essay. Use the concept map below to decide which advantages
and disadvantages to write about in your essay.
 Write the topic of your essay at the top of the map.
 List each advantage and disadvantage.
 Add support for each advantage and disadvantage.
After filling in the map, cross out any advantage or disadvantage you could not support.
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Task 3. Now write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of robots. Use the
following organizer to shape your ideas.
INTRODUCTION
How will you grab your audience’s attention? (2sentences)
What is your main idea?
BODY
First Paragraph
What is your first advantage/disadvantage?
How will you support it?
Second Paragraph
What is your second
disadvantage/advantage?
How will you support it?
Third Paragraph
What is your third disadvantage/advantage?
How will you support it?
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Fourth Paragraph
What is your fourth
disadvantage/advantage?
How will you support it?
CONCLUSION
How will you restate an advantage and a disadvantage?
Closing? (2sentences)
Task 4. Use the following questions to evaluate your advantages/disadvantages essay or that of
one of your classmates.
 Answer the questions.
 Rate the parts of the essay. The lowest score is 1, and the highest is 4.
 Write your suggestions if necessary.
1. How does the introduction grab readers’ attention? Rating 1 2 3 4
Suggestion:
2. What main idea is stated in the introduction? Rating 1 2 3 4
Suggestion:
3. How are the advantages and disadvantages grouped
together?
Rating 1 2 3 4
Suggestion:
4. Is each advantage and disadvantage explained and
supported well?
Rating 1 2 3 4
Suggestion:
5. What advantage and disadvantage are restated? Rating 1 2 3 4
Suggestion:
6. Is the essay’s discussion of the topic well-balanced? Rating 1 2 3 4
Suggestion:
Answer keys:
Task 1: Advantages: Jobs that require a lot of physical labor will be replaced. E.g. agricultural
jobs, jobs with repetitive duties like telephone call centers, jobs in the financial industry, jobs that
require studying a lot of data. Good for health industry. E.g. AI can process huge amounts of data,
so doctors can use the most up-to-date information to diagnose and treat patients.
Disadvantages: Dangerous because can be used a weapon. E.g. combining drone aircraft
technology and AI to create autonomous weapons. People might use this technology to develop
nuclear weapon.
Task 2: Sample answer: Topic: Intelligent machines such as robots are widely applied to take the
place of human beings. Disadvantage: can take the place of many humans in the factories.
Support: People will have to find new jobs or be retrained. It might lead to unemployment.
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Task 3: Sample essay. The technology of intelligent machines improves amazingly with the help of
artificial intelligence. Robots, known as steel-collar workers, are widely employed in different
aspects, such as marine research, space exploration and some modern assembly lines. Robots bring
about advantages undoubtedly, and meanwhile, they are not as versatile as expected.
The advantages of robots are innumerable. The employment of robots on assembly lines saves a lot
of labor forces. Robots are widely used in developed countries. In Japan, one out of ten thousand
workers are robots, which not only improve the working efficiency, but also enhance accuracy.
That is the reason why robots are so popular in automobile industry and electronic production line.
Another merit is that robots can take the place of human beings and work in the dangerous
environment or the places not accessible for us. Human beings have extended their cognition to the
outer space, where there are considerable unpredictable dangers. Robots can work in any kind of
situation, no matter how awful the environment is. In hospital, robots work as professional doctors
doing operation on the patients. Furthermore, robots can work around the clock, never knowing
what tiredness is.
However, the disadvantages of robots are undeniable. Firstly, all the robots and other intelligent
machines are designed by human beings. What robots do is follow the instruction and pre-set
programming by human beings. If there is something wrong with the electric circuit or programs,
robots will become good-for-nothing machines. Besides, robots cannot work creatively when
confronted with complicated situation.
In short, robots are subsidiary to human beings. However competent they are in various kinds of
field, robots will never take the place of human beings and play a decisive role in our work and
life.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
 elaborates on prior knowledge and personal experience;
 generates ideas on the benefits and drawbacks of robots and adds
evidence for each benefit or drawback;
 completes the concept map with appropriate information;
 writes a topic of the essay;
 gives advantages and disadvantages of the topic;
 evolves arguments, reasons, and evidence;
 writes the essay using organizer;
 states how the evidence supports the thesis/topic sentence;
 restates the arguments in the conclusion;
 answers the questions;
 provides constructive feedback to a partner.
92
Unit 7: Breakthrough technologies
Subunit Robotics
Learning objectives 10.1.3 Respect differing points of view
10.3.2 Ask and respond to complex questions to get information about
a wide range of general and curricular topics
10.3.5 Interact with peers to make hypotheses about a wide range of
general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Demonstrate respect towards peers and their ideas
 Respond to fellow learners, relating the discussion to relevant
course concepts and providing substantive feedback
 Express opinions and ideas clearly
 Contribute to the learning community
Level of thinking skills Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. To activate learners` schemata get them work in groups and create a word cloud about
robotics. They can either draw it or use https://www.wordclouds.com/.
In groups brainstorm the words related to robotics and make a word cloud. Your word cloud
should include at least 15 words.
Task 2. Individually write questions for a survey about robotics. Use your word cloud and
template below to write questions. Your questionnaire should:
 include 5 questions
 be grammatically correct and sentences should make sense
 include topic-related vocabulary
 include different types of questions
Questions Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Task 3. When your questionnaire is ready walk around the class to ask others in the class what
they think/know about robotics.
Teacher monitors the learners and assesses them using the rubrics below.
Name:
Criteria NonPerformance
Basic Proficient Distinguished
Responds to
fellow learners,
relating the
discussion to
relevant course
concepts and
providing
substantive
feedback
Does not
respond to
fellow
learners.
Responds to
fellow learners
without relating
discussion to the
relevant course
concepts.
Provides
feedback, but is
not substantive.
Responds to
fellow
learners,
relating
discussion to
relevant course
concepts.
Feedback is
substantive
most of the
Responds to fellow
learners, relating
the discussion to
relevant course
concepts and
consistently
extends the
dialogue through
provision of
substantive
93
time. feedback.
Expression
within the post
Does not
express
opinions or
ideas clearly;
no connection
to topic
Unclear
connection to
topic evidenced in
minimal
expression of
opinions or ideas
Opinions and
ideas are
stately clearly
with
occasional lack
of connection
to topic
Expresses opinions
and ideas in a clear
and concise
manner with
obvious connection
to topic
Contribution to
the learning
community
Does not make
effort to
participate in
learning
community as
it develops;
seems
indifferent
Occasionally
makes meaningful
reflection on
group’s efforts;
marginal effort to
become involved
with group
Frequently
attempts to
direct the
discussion and
to present
relevant
viewpoints for
consideration;
interacts freely
Aware of needs of
community;
frequently attempts
to motivate the
group discussion;
presents creative
approaches to topic
Answer keys:
Task 1: Sample word cloud: retrieved from Internet
Task 2: Sample questionnaire. Questions adapted from https://esldiscussions.com/r/robots.html
Questions Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4
1. Will robots take over the world one day?
Why/ why not?
2. Do you think robots will ever have
emotions or be able to love? Why/ why
not?
3. If you had a robot, what would you like it
to do?
4. Would you rather deal with a robot or a
human in a store or government
department?
5. Will robots have rights? What will robot
rights be?
Descriptor A learner
Task 1
Task 2
 works in a group and uses topic-related vocabulary to make a
wordcloud;
 comes up with a list of questions related to robotics;
 uses grammatically correct sentences;
 uses topic related vocabulary from Task 1;
94
Task 3
 uses different types of questions;
 asks and responds to fellow learners, relating to the discussion;
 expresses opinions and ideas in a clear and concise manner;
 contributes to the discussion.
95
TERM 4
Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10.1.1 Use speaking and listening skills to solve problems creatively and
cooperatively in groups
10.3.7.Use appropriate subject specific vocabulary and syntax to talk
about a range of general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Use subject specific vocabulary according to the context
 Use communication skills while working in groups
 Listen actively while collaborating
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Learners walk around the class and talk to other learners about astronauts. Change
partners often and share your findings. Listen actively to the peers.
CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article
say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
record / astronaut / training / program / applications / opportunity / talented / space / desire /
surprising / diverse / backgrounds / candidates / teamwork / spacecraft
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
Task 2. Match the following synonyms from the article.
1. program a. give
2. received b. chance
3. next c. unbelievable
4. opportunity d. working
5. incredible e. upcoming
6. desire f. varied
7. diverse g. course
8. contribute h. like
9. such as i. wish
10. operating j. got
Task 3. Read the text “Over 18,300 apply for 14 astronaut jobs”
A record number of people have applied to NASA to be part of its astronaut training program.
NASA said it received over 18,300 applications for just 14 jobs. This is a
record for the administration. Human resources officials at NASA will
now spend the next 18 months looking at the applications to select the
best ones. It plans to announce the successful applicants in the middle of
2017. Brian Kelly of NASA said it would be a lot of work. He added:
"It's heartening to know so many people recognize what a great
opportunity this is to be part of NASA's exciting mission. I look forward to meeting the men and
96
women talented enough to rise to the top of what is always a pool of incredible applicants."
It seems there is a great desire to work on America's space program and perhaps go to Mars.
NASA's Charlie Bolden said: "It's not at all surprising to me that so many Americans from diverse
backgrounds want to personally contribute to blazing the trail on our journey to Mars." The top
applicants will have an interview at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The chosen
candidates will then get two years of initial training. They will learn skills such as spacewalking,
teamwork and operating spacecraft systems, and learn Russian. After that, they could go to the
International Space Station or work for companies making spacecraft for tourists, such as Boeing
and SpaceX.
Task 4. Read the headline. Guess if a-h below are true (T) or false (F).
a. NASA has received its biggest ever number of applicants for jobs. T / F
b. It will take NASA 1½ years to choose the best applicants. T / F
c. NASA will announce the successful job applicants in 2018. T / F
d. Applicants will have to go into a pool and rise up. T / F
e. A NASA spokesman was surprised at how diverse the applicants were. T / F
f. The top applicants will be interviewed at Cape Canaveral in Florida. T / F
g. The applicants will learn spacewalking after two years of training. T / F
h. The applicants could join private companies such as Boeing. T / F
Task 5. Take randomly a card and prepare 5 minute nonstop talk with your partner, follow the
Role card instructions. You have 5 minutes to brainstorm ideas.
Role A – Physical fitness. You think physical fitness is most important for an astronaut. Tell the
others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren’t so important. Also, tell the others
which is the least important of these (and why): being a team player, engineering skills or a sense
of humor.
Role B – Team player. You think being a team player is most important for an astronaut. Tell
the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren’t so important. Also, tell the others
which is the least important of these (and why): physical fitness, engineering skills or a sense of
humor.
Role C – Engineering skills. You think engineering skills is most important for an astronaut.
Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren’t so important. Also, tell the
others which is the least important of these (and why): being a team player, physical fitness or a
sense of humor.
Role D – Sense of humor. You think a sense of humor is most important for an astronaut. Tell
the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren’t so important. Also, tell the others,
which is the least important of these (and why): being a team player, engineering skills or physical
fitness.
Peer asses the speaking of one-two pairs, use the following criteria:
Criteria Excellent
performanc
e
Good
performance
Needs some
improvement
Needs much
improvement
A wide range of subject specific
vocabulary is used
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Sentences are grammatically correct
Speakers are confident and persuasive
Complex and compound grammar
structures are used
Ideas are relevant and creative
Provide constructive feedback to peers using findings of peer assessment.
Answer keys:
Task 2 SYNONYM MATCH
1. program a. course
2. received b. got
3. next c. upcoming
4. opportunity d. chance
5. incredible e. unbelievable
6. desire f. wish
7. diverse g. varied
8. contribute h. give
9. such as i. like
10. operating j. working
Task 4 TRUE / FALSE
a T b T c F d T e F f F g F h T
Retrieved from: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1602/160222-astronauts.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  works collaboratively, shares ideas;
 listens actively;
 employs skills of effective communication;
Task 2  matches the words accurately;
Task 3  employs active reading strategies;
Task 4  identifies false/true statements;
Task 5  produces nonstop talk using subject specific vocabulary;
 peer assesses the talk.
98
Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10. 2.5 Recognize the attitude or opinion of the speaker in unsupported
extended talk on a wide range of general and curricular topics, including
talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
10.6.17 Use if/if only in third conditional structures, use a variety of
relative clauses on a wide range of familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Identify relevant opinion of the speaker in a talk
 Employ third conditional while expressing a claim
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Walk around the class and talk to other students about space junk. Change partners often.
Sit with your first partner(s) and share your findings.
Task 2. Read the headline. Guess if a-h below are true (T) or false (F).
a. Scientists say space junk will fall onto our cities and kill thousands. T / F
b. Space junk is a threat to the International Space Station (ISS). T / F
c. There are 22,000 objects in space that could damage the ISS. T / F
d. A scientist warned that we could no longer control our environment. T / F
e. Space agencies have never agreed on a plan to keep space clean. T / F
f. All space junk should fall to Earth and burn up. T / F
g. The amount of space debris had trebled in the past decade. T / F
h. One solution to clean up the debris is a huge magnet put in space. T / F
Task 3. Listen and fill in the gaps
Link: https://breakingnewsenglish.com/1109/110904-space_junk.html
Scientists have warned that ______________________ floating around in space is becoming a
danger to the International Space Station (ISS). Experts say that the time has come
______________________. America’s space agency NASA estimates that there are
______________________ in orbit that are big enough to track. These include things like spent
booster rockets and old satellites. They also say there are ______________________ of scrap that
could damage the ISS, space ships travelling to it, and multi-million-dollar satellites. It is such a
big problem that the ISS occasionally ______________________ the way to avoid being hit.
Donald Kessler, a retired NASA scientist said, "______________________ the environment."
Space agencies ______________________ many plans over the past few decades to address this
problem. Agreements to ______________________ of new space junk had been working. These
agreements are supposed to ensure that anything sent into ______________________ back to
Earth and burns up. However, in the past four years, ______________________ junk has doubled.
In 2007, China blew up a satellite in a missile test, and in 2009 two satellites crashed while in
orbit. These two events changed everything and effectively made ______________________ of
date. There have been several suggestions on how to clear the junk. These include launching large
magnets ______________________ into space to catch dangerous items.
Task 4. Select two questions, share your ideas with a partner and support your claims with
relevant evidence.
Use if/if only in third conditional structures.
Example: If I were a space debris expert I would …
99
1. What is the danger of us getting hit by space debris?
2. Do you think it’ll be too dangerous to fly into space one day?
3. What do we do with all the collected space junk?
4. What questions would you like to ask a space debris expert?
Answer keys:
Task 2
a. F b. T c. F d. T e. F f. T g. F h. T
Task 3.
Scientists warn of space junk danger (script)
Scientists have warned that the (1) volume of debris floating around in space is becoming a
(2) danger to the International Space Station (ISS). Experts say that the time has (3) come to start
cleaning it up. America’s space agency NASA estimates that there are around 22,000
(4) objects in orbit that are big enough to track. These include things like spent booster rockets and
old satellites. They also say there are (5) countless smaller pieces of scrap that could damage the
ISS, space ships travelling to it, and (6) multi-million-dollar satellites. It is such a big problem that
the ISS occasionally has to (7) move out of the way to avoid being hit. Donald Kessler, a retired
NASA scientist said, "We've lost (8) control of the environment."
Space agencies have come up with many plans over the (9) past few decades to address this
problem. Agreements to (10) restrict the amount of new space junk had been working. These
agreements are supposed to (11) ensure that anything sent into orbit eventually falls back to Earth
and (12) burns up. However, in the past four years, the amount of space junk has (13) doubled. In
2007, China blew up a satellite in a missile test, and in 2009 two satellites crashed while in orbit.
These two events changed everything and effectively made (14) previous agreements out of date.
There have been (15) several suggestions on how to clear the junk. These include launching large
magnets or putting (16) giant nets into space to catch dangerous items.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  shares arrange of ideas while communicating with others;
Task 2  employs prediction skills;
Task 3  identifies relevant opinion of the speaker;
Task 4  uses third conditional while conveying ideas.
100
Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10.5.6 Write coherently a text level using a variety of connectors on a
range of familiar general and curricular topics
10.6.8 Use a variety of future active and passive and future continuous
forms on a wide range of familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Communicate clearly in writing using a range of connectors
 Employ future active and passive and future continuous forms in
writing
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. JUNK: How much of a problem is it and what do we do with it? Complete this table with
your partner(s). Change partners and share what you wrote. Change and share again.
How much of a problem? What do we do with it?
Space junk
Junk in your room
Junk mail
Junk in the streets
Junk in the countryside
Junk on TV
Task 2. Put the words into the gaps in the text.
Scientists have warned that the (1) ____________ of debris floating
around in space is becoming a (2) ____________ to the International
Space Station (ISS). Experts say that the time has (3) ____________ to
start cleaning it up. America’s space agency NASA estimates that there
are around 22,000 (4) ____________ in orbit that are big enough to track.
These include things like spent booster rockets and old satellites. They
also say there are (5) ____________ smaller pieces of scrap that could
damage the ISS, space ships travelling to it, and (6) ____________ -million-dollar satellites. It is such a big problem that the ISS occasionally
has to (7) ____________ out of the way to avoid being hit. Donald
Kessler, a retired NASA scientist said, "We've lost (8) ____________ of
the environment."
countless
come
move
volume
control
objects
danger
multi
Space agencies have come up with many plans over the (9) ____________
few decades to address this problem. Agreements to (10) ____________
the amount of new space junk had been working. These agreements are
supposed to (11) ____________ that anything sent into orbit eventually
falls back to Earth and (12) ____________ up. However, in the past four
years, the amount of space junk has (13) ____________. In 2007, China
blew up a satellite in a missile test, and in 2009 two satellites crashed
while in orbit. These two events changed everything and effectively made
(14) ____________ agreements out of date. There have been (15)
____________ suggestions on how to clear the junk. These include
launching large magnets or putting (16) ____________ nets into space to
catch dangerous items.
previous
restrict
giant
ensure
doubled
past
several
burns
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Task 3. Write a letter to a space junk expert. Ask him/her three questions about space junk. Give
him/her three of your opinions on how to deal with it. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your
next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.
Follow the criteria while writing your letter:
1. Formal style of writing
2. Higher order questions are posed in the letter
3. Three solutions are presented to the experts
4. Expected results of solutions are provided
5. Less frequent vocabulary is use
6. Sentences are grammatically accurate.
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  communicates ideas clearly in writing;
Task 2  identifies relevant vocabulary in the gap fill tasks;
Task 3  produces a formal style writing using a range of connectors, complex and
compound grammar structures.
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Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10.1.3.Respect different points of views
10.4.5. Deduce meaning from context in extended texts on a wide range
of familiar general and curricular topics, and some unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Respect different points of view while working in groups and
pair
 Identify relevant meaning according to the context
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task I. Pre-Reading Activity.
Learners infer the meanings of the words in bold taken from the article. They may use a
dictionary, thesaurus, and Word Chart for assistance. Work in pairs.
1. Space X aims to ferry 1 million people to the Red
Planet.
2. Spaceships will move toward Mars simultaneously from
Earth.
3. It’s naïve to expect that everything will work perfectly.
4. The risk of fatality will be high.
5. Musk spoke in a teleconference with reporters.
6. Musk will not be among the Mars vanguard.
7. Space X was developed chiefly to help humanity colonize Mars.
8. Musk reiterated his argument during the IAC presentation.
9. There is always a risk of humanity’s extinction.
10. It would be an incredible adventure.
Task 2. Read the text: 1st Mars Colonists Should Be 'Prepared to Die,' Elon Musk Says.
The first people who fly with Space X to Mars should be OK with the possibility that the decision
could cost them their lives, company founder and CEO Elon Musk said. Space X aims to ferry 1
million people to the Red Planet over the next 50 to 100 years using the Interplanetary Transport
System (ITS), a rocket-spaceship combo that Musk unveiled Tuesday (Sept. 27) during a talk at
the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Guadalajara, Mexico. (Well, he unveiled the ITS
in concept; neither vehicle has been built yet.). Musk painted a picture of a not-too-distant future in
which 1,000 or more ITS spaceships, each loaded up with 100 or 200 settlers, zoom off toward
Mars simultaneously from Earth orbit. But it's naïve to expect that everything will work perfectly
from the start, he said.
"I think the first journeys to Mars are going to be really very dangerous. The risk of fatality will be
high; there's just no way around it," Musk said at the IAC, adding that, for this reason, he would
not suggest sending children on these flights.
"It would be, basically, 'Are you prepared to die?' If that's OK, then, you know, you're a candidate
for going," he said. Musk said he'd like to go to Mars, but it's unclear if he'll be among the Red
Planet vanguard. In a teleconference with reporters Tuesday after the IAC talk, he said he wasn't
sure if he'd be aboard the first-ever Mars colony ship, which may be called "Heart of Gold" after a
vehicle in Douglas Adams' "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy."
"I would definitely need to have a very good succession plan, because the probability of death is
quite high on the first mission, and I'd like to see my kids grow up and everything — so, some pros
and cons there," he said. Musk has long said that he founded SpaceX in 2002 chiefly to help
103
humanity colonize Mars. Becoming a multiplanet species would serve as an insurance policy,
minimizing the risk of humanity's extinction should something terrible happen on Earth, he has
said. Musk reiterated that argument during the IAC presentation Tuesday. But he also put forth
another reason why settling Mars is worth the trouble and the treasure and the risk. "It would be an
incredible adventure; it would be the most inspiring thing that I can possibly imagine," he said.
"Life needs to be more than just solving problems every day. You need to wake up and be excited
about the future, and be inspired and want to live."
Task 3. Reading Comprehension
Fill-ins
The following sentences are from the article. Choose the correct word for each blank space from
the word list or make up your own words.
Musk has long___ that he ___Space X in 2002 ___to help ___colonize Mars. Becoming a multi
planet___ would ___as an insurance policy, minimizing the___ of humanity’s ___should
something___ happen on Earth.
WORD LIST: terrible, species, said, risk, humanity, founded, chiefly, extinction, serve
Task 4. Grammar Focus: Structure and Usage
The following groups of sentences are from the article. One of the sentences in each group
contains a grammatical error. Identify the sentence (1, 2, or 3 ) from each group that contains the
grammatical error.
I
The first journey to Mars will going to be really dangerous.
The risk of fatality will be high.
Setting up shop on Mars isn’t going to be a cakewalk.
II
This is less about who goes there first.
It’s worth the risk to become multi planetary species.
Musk says the trip to Mars will be an incredible adventure.
III
Life needs to be more then just solving problems.
It’s about protecting human life.
This mission is also about having a tremendous sense of adventure.
Answer keys
Task 1. Word Inference
ferry |ˈferē| verb (ferries, ferrying, ferried) [ with obj. ] transport from one place to another on
short or regular trips: helicopters ferried 4,000 men into the desert.
simultaneously |ˌsīməlˈtānēəslē| adverb -at the same time: the telethon was broadcast
simultaneously on 31 US networks. it works simultaneously as character study, teen drama and
sci-fi thriller.
naïve |nīˈēv| adjective -(of a person or action) showing a lack of experience, wisdom, or judgment:
the rather naive young man had been totally misled.
fatality |fāˈtalədēfəˈ noun-an occurrence of death by accident, in war, or from disease: shooting
was heard and there were fatalities.
teleconference |ˈteləˌkänf(ə)rəns| noun-a conference with participants in different locations linked
104
by telecommunications devices.
vanguard |ˈvanˌɡärd| noun-a group of people leading the way in new developments or ideas: the
experimental spirit of the modernist vanguard.
colonize |ˈkäləˌnīz| verb-(of a country or its citizens) send a group of settlers to (a place) and
establish political control over it.
reiterate |rēˈidəˌrāt| verb [ reporting verb ]say something again or a number of times, typically for
emphasis or clarity: she reiterated that the administration would remain steadfast in its support .
extinction|ikˈstiNG(k)SH(ə)n| noun-the state or process of a species, family, or larger group being
or becoming extinct: the extinction of the great auk| mass extinctions.
incredible |inˈkredəb(ə)l| adjective-impossible to believe: an almost incredible tale of triumph and
tragedy.
Source: New Oxford American Dictionary
Task 3. Reading Comprehension
Fill-ins
Musk has long said that he founded Space X in 2002 chiefly to help humanity colonize Mars.
Becoming multi planet species would serve as an insurance policy, minimizing the risk of
humanity’s extinction should something terrible happen on Earth.
Task 4. Grammar Focus: Structure and Usage.
I-1-is
The first journey to Mars is going to be really dangerous.
II-2-a
It’s worth the risk to become a multiplanetary species.
III-1-than
Life needs to be more than just solving problems.
Retrieved from: https://www.space.com/34259-elon-musk-first-mars-colonists-prepared-die.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  identifies meaning of the words;
 respects different points of view while working in
collaboration;
Task 2  employs active reading strategies;
Task 3  uses relevant words;
Task 4  identifies grammar errors in the context.
105
Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10. 3.3 explain and justify own and others` point of view on a wide
range of general and curricular topics
10.6.15 use infinitive forms after an increased number of verbs and
adjectives, use gerund forms after a variety of verbs and prepositions,
use a variety of prepositional and phrasal verb on a wide range of
familiar general and curricular topics
Assessment criteria  Express own position clearly and consider different perspectives
on a range of issues
 Use infinitives, verbs, adjectives, phrasal verbs, prepositional
phrases accurately
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Vocabulary Preview. Match the words on the left with the meanings on the right.
1. possibility
2. billionaire
3. announce (v.)
4. CEO
5. create (v.)
6. technology
7. affordable
8. NASA
E A. to make
B. to say something publicly to many people
C. the national space agency of the USA
D. not too expensive; able to be bought
E. something that may be true
F. computers and rockets, for example
G. a person who has one billion (1,000,000,000) dollars
H. the Chief Executive Officer (leader) of a company
Task 2. Use the above words to complete the sentences. Use plural forms and past tense when
necessary.
1. My uncle is very rich! He’s a _________________.
2. There is a _________________ of rain later in the day. Maybe it will rain.
3. Who is the _________________ of McDonald’s?
4. That car costs too much. It’s not _________________.
5. _________________ astronauts first landed on the moon in 1969.
6. Artists and inventors like to make, or _________________, new things.
7. Do you think the government will _________________ a new holiday?
8. Nowadays, _________________ (like computers) changes very quickly.
Task 3. Choose any two of the above words and write your own sentences.
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
Task 4. Complete the paragraph by circling the correct words.
For several years, many people have (1)_____ about the possibility of flying to Mars. One of the
106
problems with such a trip, however, has (2)_____ the cost: US 10 billion dollars
(US$10,000,000,000) to (3)_____ one person to the red planet. Elon Musk, a billionaire
businessman, recently announced his plans to change (4)_____. He is the CEO of Space X, a
company that he created, and he (5)_____ to change the world by
selling tickets to Mars for only US$200,000. (6)_____ can he do this? The answer is technology.
With new technology, he believes, his company will (7)_____ to make the long trip to Mars
affordable. He plans to send the first human to Mars (8)_____ 2025, and after that his company
wants to send one million people to Mars in the next 40 (9)_____ 100 years. To do this, Space X
needs to (10)_____ about 1,000 space
ships. (11)_____ his company be successful? “I think he will be able to put humans on Mars
because he wants to do it,” says Robert Zubrin, the president of the Mars Society. “Right now
NASA can’t do it because they (12)_____ want to.”
1.
(A) talk
(B) talked
(C) talks
2.
(A) being
(B) be
(C) been
3.
(A) sending
(B) sent
(C) send
4.
(A) this
(B) those
(C) these
5.
(A) hope
(B) hopes
(C) hoping
6.
(A) What
(B) How
(C) Who
7.
(A) be able
(B) able
(C) ability
8.
(A) by
(B) on
(C) to
9.
(A) to
(B) at
(C) by
10.
(A) built
(B) building
(C) build
11.
(A) Does
(B) Is
(C) Will
12.
(A) aren’t
(B) don’t
(C) weren’t
Task 5. Discuss the following questions with your classmates.
1. Do you think Space X will be really able to send a million people to Mars? Why? / Why not?
2. Why would some people like to travel to and live on Mars?
3. Would you like live on Mars? Why? / Why not?
Answer keys:
Task 1. Vocabulary Preview Task 4.
1. E
2. G
3. B
4. H
5. A
6. F
7. D
8. C
1. billionaire
2. possibility
3. CEO
4. affordable
5. NASA
6. create
7. announce
8. technology
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. B
7. A
8. A
9. A
10. C
11. C
12. B
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  identifies relevant vocabulary;
Task 2  uses plural forms and past tense in a relevant and accurate way;
Task 3  constructs grammatically accurate sentences;
Task 4  uses infinitives, verbs, adjectives, phrasal verbs, prepositional phrases
accurately;
Task 5  expresses own position clearly considering different perspectives on a range
of issues.
107
Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10.5.6 Write coherently at text level using a variety of connectors on a
range of familiar general and curricular topics
10.1.9 Use imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences and
feelings
Assessment criteria  Produce coherent and grammatically accurate writing using a
range of connectors
 Use imagination to express ideas
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Graphic Organizers: Finding the main idea.
Learners could use this Topic/Concept/Theme organizer to assist
them with discussing or writing about the main topic or theme of
the article.
Task 2. Create Questions. Place learners in groups. Have each
group list 3 questions they would like to ask any person mentioned
in the text. Groups share questions as a class.
Task 3. Read the text: 1st Mars Colonists Should Be 'Prepared to Die,' Elon Musk Says.
The first people who fly with Space X to Mars should be OK with the possibility that the decision
could cost them their lives, company founder and CEO Elon Musk said. Space X aims to ferry 1
million people to the Red Planet over the next 50 to 100 years using the Interplanetary Transport
System (ITS), a rocket-spaceship combo that Musk unveiled Tuesday (Sept. 27) during a talk at
the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Guadalajara, Mexico. (Well, he unveiled the ITS
in concept; neither vehicle has been built yet.). Musk painted a picture of a not-too-distant future in
which 1,000 or more ITS spaceships, each loaded up with 100 or 200 settlers, zoom off toward
Mars simultaneously from Earth orbit. But it's naïve to expect that everything will work perfectly
from the start, he said.
"I think the first journeys to Mars are going to be really very dangerous. The risk of fatality will be
high; there's just no way around it," Musk said at the IAC, adding that, for this reason, he would
not suggest sending children on these flights. "It would be, basically, 'Are you prepared to die?' If
that's OK, then, you know, you're a candidate for going," he said.
Musk said he'd like to go to Mars, but it's unclear if he'll be among the Red Planet vanguard. In a
teleconference with reporters Tuesday after the IAC talk, he said he wasn't sure if he'd be aboard
the first-ever Mars colony ship, which may be called "Heart of Gold" after a vehicle in Douglas
Adams' "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy." "I would definitely need to have a very good
succession plan, because the probability of death is quite high on the first mission, and I'd like to
see my kids grow up and everything — so, some pros and cons there," he said.
Musk has long said that he founded Space X in 2002 chiefly to help humanity colonize Mars.
Becoming a multiplanet species would serve as an insurance policy, minimizing the risk of
humanity's extinction should something terrible happen on Earth, he has said. Musk reiterated that
argument during the IAC presentation Tuesday. But he also put forth another reason why settling
Mars is worth the trouble and the treasure and the risk. "It would be an incredible adventure; it
would be the most inspiring thing that I can possibly imagine," he said. "Life needs to be more
108
than just solving problems every day. You need to wake up and be excited about the future, and be
inspired and want to live."
Task 4. Group Project: What Will Colonists Need on Mars?
In groups make a list of the six most important items you think the first colonists on Mars would
need to bring. The items should be necessary for survival. The group can only choose six items!
Get together as a class and create a new list of the six most important items.
Task 5. 10-Minute Free Writing Exercise.
Allow learners 10 minutes to write down one-two new ideas they’ve learned from the reading.
Encourage learners to use transitional devices in the paragraphs.
Ask them to write down one-two things they did not understand in the reading. Review the
responses as a class. For the lower levels allow more time for this writing activity. Encourage
learners to use imagination to express ideas.
Retrieved from: https://www.space.com/34259-elon-musk-first-mars-colonists-prepared-die.html
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  creates a mind up according to the topic;
Task 2  asks open questions;
Task 3  employs active reading strategies;
Task 4  writes the list of important items for survival;
Task 5  writes coherently and accurately using a range of connectors;
 uses imagination while writing ideas.
109
Unit 8: Space X
Subunit Things you didn’t know about space
Learning objective 10.1. 9 Use imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences and
feelings
10.2.5 Recognize the attitude or opinion of the speaker in unsupported
extended talk on a wide range of general and curricular topics, including
talk on a limited range of unfamiliar topics
Assessment criteria  Express ideas, experiences and feelings coherently
 Identify speakers attitude and opinion in a relevant way
Level of thinking
skills
Knowledge and comprehension
Application
Higher order thinking skills
Task 1. Test your knowledge about space exploration:
1. How many people are in space right now?:
a) 0 b) 4-7 c) 10 or more
2. SpaceX is:
a) NASA program b) a rocket c) a private company
3. How many planets are there in the Solar System?
a) 8 b) 9 c) 7
Task 2. Complete the bubbles with right words/phrases.
likely certain good chance bound
will unlikely strong likelihood doubt no chance
1 All our computer equipment …… be replaced in the near future.
2 If you have personal problems, it’s …. to affect your work.
3 After all his hard work, he's ……. to pass his exams.
4 There is a ….. ….. that a recession can be avoided.
5 Our sales are ….. to rise next month.
6 There’s a ….. ……. that he will run for president next year.
7 They had begun to …… that it could be done.
8 The lack of evidence means that the case is ……. to go to court.
9 There is .. …… our company will sell more cars.
Task 3. In pairs, discuss how likely the predictions below are. Use the language from the previous
exercise.
1. Privacy will become a thing of the past.
2. By the early 2030s, we will be able to copy human consciousness to a computer.
3. WiFi connection will be available at any point of our planet.
4. All forms of transport will eventually become electric.
5. The effects of climate change will be irreversible.
6. Physical money (coins and notes) won’t exist anymore.
7. Scientists will unlock the genetic secrets that could allow us live for centuries, maybe
forever.
100 %
sure
Almost sure
Don’t think so
110
Task 4.
1. Before watching the video, match the underlined expressions with their meanings (1-6):
Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=19&v=I7LJIuB2CHE
a) If you set your sights too low, you will not be sufficiently challenged and will be let down when
you achieve your aim.
b) We had to stop some flights to Spain for the winter time because they were not commercially
viable during that time.
c) The man in the wheelchair insisted that he was capable of taking care of himself.
d) The boosters will detach from the rocket at certain altitude and return to the launch pad.
e) The biggest thrill is when your team wins a game against their worst rivals.
f) The latest success of SpaceX may spell trouble for other spaceflight companies as they start
falling behind.
1. device for increasing force or power
2. have goals which are not considered difficult to reach
3. a sudden feeling of excitement and pleasure
4. having the ability or quality necessary to do or achieve a specified thing
5. mean or have as a result.
6. financially sustainable
Task 5. Watch the video again and answer these questions (to 3:50):
1. How much more cargo than any other rocket can Falcon Heavy carry?
2. What kind of Falcon Heavy features do Elon Musk name?
3. What has been the biggest challenge to make Falcon Heavy fly?
4. What is Elon Musk most excited about in terms of that rocket launch?
5. Why is SpaceX a fantastic idea according to Bill Nye?
Task 6. Discuss and share your ideas. One of the interviewee’s in the video said the following:
“There are two questions we’ve have all asked: where did we come from and are we alone in the
universe? and if you want to answer those two questions you have to explore space.”
1. Do you believe that these questions can be answered through space exploration?
2. Are these questions something that you’ve ever thought about?
3. Does the humankind really need answer to these questions?
Answer keys:
Task 4
1. - d)
2. - a)
3. - e)
4. - c)
5. - f)
6. - b)
Task 5
1. Almost twice as much
2. It’s a super heavy class rocket, that’s economically viable and can carry people to the Moon
3. Redesigning the center core (the middle section)
111
4. Inspiring people to get excited about space again
5. They want to make rockets be like planes – you can use them multiple times
Descriptor A learner
Task 1  uses prior knowledge on the topic;
Task 2  identifies accurate ways of prediction;
Task 3  predicts the likelihood of the positions;
Task 4  employs prediction skills before listening;
Task 5  identifies relevant attitude and opinion of the speaker;
Task 6  expresses ideas, feelings and experiences coherently.

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